Racing Toward Yottabyte Information

Yotta, yotta, yotta—that’s the Greek prefix we’ll soon need to describe the vastness of our data archives—yotta, yotta, yotta

3 min read
Illustration by Stuart Bradford
Illustration: Stuart Bradford

Once upon a time, information was deposited only inside human brains, and ancient bards could spend hours retelling stories of conflicts and conquests. Then external data storage was invented. 

Small clay cylinders and tablets, invented in Sumer some 5,000 years ago, often contained just a dozen cuneiform characters, equivalent to a few hundred bytes (102 B). The Oresteia, a trilogy of Greek tragedies by Aeschylus (fifth century BCE), amounts to about 300,000 B (105 B). Some rich senators in imperial Rome had libraries housing hundreds of scrolls, with one large collection holding at least 108 B (100 megabytes).

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3D-Stacked CMOS Takes Moore’s Law to New Heights

When transistors can’t get any smaller, the only direction is up

10 min read
An image of stacked squares with yellow flat bars through them.
Emily Cooper

Perhaps the most far-reaching technological achievement over the last 50 years has been the steady march toward ever smaller transistors, fitting them more tightly together, and reducing their power consumption. And yet, ever since the two of us started our careers at Intel more than 20 years ago, we’ve been hearing the alarms that the descent into the infinitesimal was about to end. Yet year after year, brilliant new innovations continue to propel the semiconductor industry further.

Along this journey, we engineers had to change the transistor’s architecture as we continued to scale down area and power consumption while boosting performance. The “planar” transistor designs that took us through the last half of the 20th century gave way to 3D fin-shaped devices by the first half of the 2010s. Now, these too have an end date in sight, with a new gate-all-around (GAA) structure rolling into production soon. But we have to look even further ahead because our ability to scale down even this new transistor architecture, which we call RibbonFET, has its limits.

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