THE INSTITUTEIEEE Member Kamil Ugurbil is set to receive this year’s IEEE Medal for Innovations in Healthcare Technology for “pioneering the development and leading the advancement of ultrahigh-field MRI technology for biomedical and brain research.”

The MRI technologies developed by Ugurbil “expanded the boundaries of biomedical information content, accuracy, and spatiotemporal resolution of imaging and spectroscopy signals,” according to his nominator.

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The Ultimate Transistor Timeline

The transistor’s amazing evolution from point contacts to quantum tunnels

1 min read
A chart showing the timeline of when a transistor was invented and when it was commercialized.
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Even as the initial sales receipts for the first transistors to hit the market were being tallied up in 1948, the next generation of transistors had already been invented (see “The First Transistor and How it Worked.”) Since then, engineers have reinvented the transistor over and over again, raiding condensed-matter physics for anything that might offer even the possibility of turning a small signal into a larger one.

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