SQL dominated the jobs ranking in IEEE Spectrum’s interactive rankings of the top programming languages this year. Normally, the top position is occupied by Python or other mainstays, such as C, C++, Java, and JavaScript, but the sheer number of times employers said they wanted developers with SQL skills, albeit in addition to a more general-purpose language, boosted it to No. 1.

So what’s behind SQL’s soar to the top? The ever-increasing use of databases, for one. SQL has become the primary query language for accessing and managing data stored in such databases—specifically relational databases, which represent data in table form with rows and columns. Databases serve as the foundation of many enterprise applications and are increasingly found in other places as well, for example taking the place of traditional file systems in smartphones.

“This ubiquity means that every software developer will have to interact with databases no matter the field, and SQL is the de facto standard for interacting with databases,” says Andy Pavlo, a professor specializing in database management at the Carnegie Mellon University (CMU) School of Computer Science and a member of the CMU database group.

The use of SQL within streaming systems opens up a new chapter.

That sentiment is echoed by Torsten Suel, a professor and director of undergraduate programs in computer science and engineering at the NYU Tandon School of Engineering. “A lot of our technological infrastructure uses relational databases to store and query their data, and while not the only way, SQL is still considered the main way—or most powerful way—to interface with relational databases,” he says.

Beyond the utility of databases in themselves, big data and the growth of streaming architecture are contributing to SQL’s rise. “Markets such as retail, e-commerce, and energy are seeing growing interest in applications where data has to be processed and analyzed in real time,” says Manish Devgan, chief product officer at real-time data platform Hazelcast. “The use of SQL within streaming systems opens up a new chapter in the story of SQL within the data domain.”

Even the fields of data science and machine learning are propelling SQL to the top. “We have this huge boom in data science and machine learning, and students focusing on these fields during their studies often also take a database course, which usually involves learning SQL,” says Suel. “So it could be a side effect of the data-science-and-machine-learning boom.”

Consequently, even if you mostly program in, say, Python or C++, it’s increasingly important that your application can talk to an SQL database. “Most of the software we develop depends on relational databases, and we rely on SQL,” says Andrey Maximov, chief technology officer at the Web development agency Five Jars. “The development process often goes through setting requirements and specifications, which very much comply with the ideas of relational databases.”

The existing software and tooling ecosystem that relies on SQL is vast.

This means learning SQL will benefit your career as a programmer—and it’s a fairly intuitive language to pick up. “SQL is a mature technology,” says Maximov, who has been a developer for more than a decade and has extensive experience in SQL programming. “It’s taught in colleges and universities, and it’s really easy to learn.”

SQL has been around since the 1970s, with computer scientists from IBM developing Sequel, the first version of the language. It was standardized more than a decade later, and new versions of the SQL standard continue to be published. “The SQL standards body has done an excellent job adapting to emerging technology trends and expanding the language over the decades,” Pavlo says. “And the existing software and tooling ecosystem that relies on SQL is vast.”

Having been around for more than 50 years, SQL has seen new technologies arise to challenge its enduring power. “Reports of the impending death of SQL used to be quite a regular occurrence over the years, especially with the rise of the NoSQL movement,” says Devgan. NoSQL refers to a type of database developed in the late 2000s that stores data in a format other than tables, such as documents or graphs with nodes and edges. Even tech giants like Google experimented with NoSQL. The company initially designed its database service, Cloud Spanner, as a NoSQL database, but soon realized it needed a robust and expressive query language, so it turned back to SQL.

“Every decade, another hyped-up database technology comes along that claims SQL is terrible, slow, or impractical,” Pavlo says. “Over time, the conventional wisdom comes back to realizing that [SQL] is a good idea, and everyone returns to it.”

The Conversation (1)
Richard Hoek14 Sep, 2022

We (at Tracy Data Solutions) totally agree with the statement "The Rise of SQL". We have built a tool in the form of a web application which is designed to create Enterprise Software Solutions. In fact the tool *is* the beginning of the Enterprise Software Solution itself! This tool enables everyone with *only* just some understanding of SQL to build Online Enterprise Database Solutions for SQL Server. The tool is called TSQL.APP and the first-ever Solution we have built with it in 2021 is in use by 3 trading companies (import & export of fruit & vegetables) and has already processed tens of thousands of orders with a turn-over of more than 200 Million EURO in the first year.The technology is based on .NET Core and can be hosted on Linux and Windows Servers using SQL-Server as database

The Spectacular Collapse of CryptoKitties, the First Big Blockchain Game

A cautionary tale of NFTs, Ethereum, and cryptocurrency security

8 min read
Mountains and cresting waves made of cartoon cats and large green coins.
Frank Stockton

On 4 September 2018, someone known only as Rabono bought an angry cartoon cat named Dragon for 600 ether—an amount of Ethereum cryptocurrency worth about US $170,000 at the time, or $745,000 at the cryptocurrency’s value in July 2022.

It was by far the highest transaction yet for a nonfungible token (NFT), the then-new concept of a unique digital asset. And it was a headline-grabbing opportunity for CryptoKitties, the world’s first blockchain gaming hit. But the sky-high transaction obscured a more difficult truth: CryptoKitties was dying, and it had been for some time.

The launch of CryptoKitties drove up the value of Ether and the number of transactions on its blockchain. Even as the game's transaction volume plummeted, the number of Ethereum transactions continued to rise, possibly because of the arrival of multiple copycat NFT games.

That perhaps unrealistic wish becomes impossible once the downward spiral begins. Players, feeling no other attachment to the game than growing an investment, quickly flee and don’t return.

Whereas some blockchain games have seemingly ignored the perils of CryptoKitties’ quick growth and long decline, others have learned from the strain it placed on the Ethereum network. Most blockchain games now use a sidechain, a blockchain that exists independently but connects to another, more prominent “parent” blockchain. The chains are connected by a bridge that facilitates the transfer of tokens between each chain. This prevents a rise in fees on the primary blockchain, as all game activity occurs on the sidechain.

Yet even this new strategy comes with problems, because sidechains are proving to be less secure than the parent blockchain. An attack on Ronin, the sidechain used by Axie Infinity, let the hackers get away with the equivalent of $600 million. Polygon, another sidechain often used by blockchain games, had to patch an exploit that put $850 million at risk and pay a bug bounty of $2 million to the hacker who spotted the issue. Players who own NFTs on a sidechain are now warily eyeing its security.

Remember Dragon

The cryptocurrency wallet that owns the near million dollar kitten Dragon now holds barely 30 dollars’ worth of ether and hasn’t traded in NFTs for years. Wallets are anonymous, so it’s possible the person behind the wallet moved on to another. Still, it’s hard not to see the wallet’s inactivity as a sign that, for Rabono, the fun didn’t last.

Whether blockchain games and NFTs shoot to the moon or fall to zero, Bladon remains proud of what CryptoKitties accomplished and hopeful it nudged the blockchain industry in a more approachable direction.

“Before CryptoKitties, if you were to say ‘blockchain,’ everyone would have assumed you’re talking about cryptocurrency,” says Bladon. “What I’m proudest of is that it was something genuinely novel. There was real technical innovation, and seemingly, a real culture impact.”

This article was corrected on 11 August 2022 to give the correct date of Bryce Bladon's departure from Dapper Labs.

This article appears in the September 2022 print issue as “The Spectacular Collapse of CryptoKitties.”

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