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Google’s frequent logo changes owe much to the whimsy of webmaster Dennis Hwang, 30, a former Stanford University student of studio art and computer science, who joined Google in college as an intern. His reimaginings of the Google logo to commemorate the Mars Rover landing, Monet’s birthday, and the 25th anniversary of TCP/IP, to name just a few, have reached a kind of cult status. ”I started doing this by chance during the early days of Google—now it takes up 10 to 20 percent of my time,” he says. ”People are more productive when their work really excites them.” With Hwang designing some 50 logos a year, Google is now building a team of artists to handle the demand.

Hwang is always looking for new ideas to celebrate innovation. Eâ¿¿mail logo suggestions to, and visit past doodles at

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Why Functional Programming Should Be the Future of Software Development

It’s hard to learn, but your code will produce fewer nasty surprises

11 min read
A plate of spaghetti made from code
Shira Inbar

You’d expectthe longest and most costly phase in the lifecycle of a software product to be the initial development of the system, when all those great features are first imagined and then created. In fact, the hardest part comes later, during the maintenance phase. That’s when programmers pay the price for the shortcuts they took during development.

So why did they take shortcuts? Maybe they didn’t realize that they were cutting any corners. Only when their code was deployed and exercised by a lot of users did its hidden flaws come to light. And maybe the developers were rushed. Time-to-market pressures would almost guarantee that their software will contain more bugs than it would otherwise.

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