The December 2022 issue of IEEE Spectrum is here!

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Slideshow: The Art of Failure 2009

A microscopic menagerie from damaged devices

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Image: Djemel Lellouchi
DINOSAUR EGG: Djemel Lellouchi, of the microelectromechanical systems reliability firm Nova MEMS, in Ramonville, France, found this oddity while investigating the failure of an optical switch. The image won the annual Art of Failure Analysis contest at the 2009 IEEE International Symposium on the Physical and Failure Analysis of Integrated Circuits, in Suzhou, China, 6 to 10 July.
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The Transistor at 75

The past, present, and future of the modern world’s most important invention

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A photo of a birthday cake with 75 written on it.
Lisa Sheehan

Seventy-five years is a long time. It’s so long that most of us don’t remember a time before the transistor, and long enough for many engineers to have devoted entire careers to its use and development. In honor of this most important of technological achievements, this issue’s package of articles explores the transistor’s historical journey and potential future.

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