Profile: IsoPlexis Analyzes Thousands of Cells to Fight Cancer


Software and microelectronics fabrication techniques let research identify powerful immune cells


3 min read
Photo showing the IsoPlexis chip.
Photo: IsoPlexis

Cancer patients' bodies contain immune cells that, through successful immunotherapy, can deliver proteins to destroy tumors. But it had been difficult in the past to identify which immune cells were the most powerful.

Now, IsoPlexis, a life sciences startup based in Connecticut, has created “microchips" that quickly identify 42 proteins emitted from thousands of individual cells. Software then analyzes the results to determine which cells are the highly potent “Superman" cells that are the most effective in immunotherapy.

In biology, “to understand the complete picture, you have to look at thousands of cells," says Rong Fan, IsoPlexis cofounder.

Fan developed the underlying science while a postdoc at Caltech working with chemistry professor James R. Heath, who is also director of the National Cancer Institute's NSB Cancer Center.

When Fan, associate professor of biomedical engineering at Yale, came to New Haven, he met Sean Mackay, who was finishing up his MBA. Mackay says he was looking to partner with someone working in life sciences because he had seen the impact that early-stage life sciences firms could have on people's lives.

The timing of the company's founding coincided with a boom in the use of immuno-oncology treatment. IsoPlexis received early funding from Spring Mountain Capital, Connecticut Innovations, Yale, the National Institutes of Health's Small Business Innovation Research grant, and venture capital investors.

Still, the startup had to convince its potential customers that it offered benefits over existing technology. “We never thought our goal would be to dethrone existing technology, but rather be a complement to them," says cofounder and CEO Mackay. IsoPlexis's microchips use microelectronics fabrication technology to trap single cells in a microchamber and isolate them from one another, says Heath, now director of IsoPlexis's scientific advisory board. One of the company's major inventions is the technique to parallelize and squeeze microsensor detection pads into the tiny microchambers, each with a volume of about a nanoliter.

IsoPlexis

Founded: 2013

Headquarters: Branford, Conn.

Founders: Rong Fan, Sean Mackay, James Heath

Employees: 91

Capital raised to date: US $19 million, Series A & B

At the chip's proof-of-concept phase, it took a week to manually count the cells and analyze the data. IsoPlexis hired Patrick Paczkowski as vice president of software to turn the company's data-processing and bioinformatics software into a fully automated commercial product. Like Mackay, Paczkowski had a degree that had nothing to do with biology, but he wanted to create better algorithms to analyze the cells. This and other engineering efforts led to the IsoLight system, which can complete automated image processing and data-quantification analytics in a few hours.

The technology is not limited to oncology. The company began working in that field partly based on the founders' research focus and because funding for cancer research is more plentiful than for other diseases. Mackay says the technology can be used for research, and eventually diagnostics, for autoimmune diseases such as multiple sclerosis, systemic lupus, Crohn's disease, and Alzheimer's disease. Scientists are also researching applying the technology to immunotherapy for infectious diseases, such as Lyme, and to vaccine development.

Michael Andreeff, M.D., a genetics professor at the University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center and a pioneer in flow cytometry—the measurement of single-cell characteristics—called the IsoPlexis “a very elegant system." He added that he was able to uncover some surprising results using the technology in his lab: “Importantly, the IsoPlexis system may be able to predict what patients will respond to immune-checkpoint inhibitors."

While the process is not revolutionary, Andreeff said that if these results are confirmed, the IsoPlexis could be a 9+ on a 10-point scale as a research tool. “No other technology has provided this kind of prediction," he said. Asked whether he had a financial stake in IsoPlexis, Andreeff said, “I wish."

This article appears in the May 2019 print issue as “IsoPlexis."

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Can This DIY Rocket Program Send an Astronaut to Space?

Copenhagen Suborbitals is crowdfunding its crewed rocket

15 min read
Vertical
Five people stand in front of two tall rockets. Some of the people are wearing space suits and holding helmets, others are holding welding equipment.

Copenhagen Suborbitals volunteers are building a crewed rocket on nights and weekends. The team includes [from left] Mads Stenfatt, Martin Hedegaard Petersen, Jørgen Skyt, Carsten Olsen, and Anna Olsen.

Mads Stenfatt
Red

It was one of the prettiest sights I have ever seen: our homemade rocket floating down from the sky, slowed by a white-and-orange parachute that I had worked on during many nights at the dining room table. The 6.7-meter-tall Nexø II rocket was powered by a bipropellant engine designed and constructed by the Copenhagen Suborbitals team. The engine mixed ethanol and liquid oxygen together to produce a thrust of 5 kilonewtons, and the rocket soared to a height of 6,500 meters. Even more important, it came back down in one piece.

That successful mission in August 2018 was a huge step toward our goal of sending an amateur astronaut to the edge of space aboard one of our DIY rockets. We're now building the Spica rocket to fulfill that mission, and we hope to launch a crewed rocket about 10 years from now.

Copenhagen Suborbitals is the world's only crowdsourced crewed spaceflight program, funded to the tune of almost US $100,000 per year by hundreds of generous donors around the world. Our project is staffed by a motley crew of volunteers who have a wide variety of day jobs. We have plenty of engineers, as well as people like me, a pricing manager with a skydiving hobby. I'm also one of three candidates for the astronaut position.

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