Photo: David Stuart
Photo: David Stuart

This issue of IEEE Spectrum contains a special report about custom-made enterprise software and its many spectacular failures—the kind that bankrupt companies and cost governments and whole industries tens of billions of dollars a year. We put a man on the moon. So why can’t we make software that works?

Companies and governments undertake these customized IT ventures to make themselves run more efficiently and more effectively. Some of these projects are huge and extremely complex. It’s now common to see multibillion-dollar efforts that take years or even decades to complete. And when that software is good, it can transform entire organizations, as companies like Wal-Mart and Dell Computer have shown.

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The EV Transition Explained: Battery Challenges

Batteries expose supply chain and skills gaps

6 min read
A General Motors Hummer EV chassis sits in front of an Hummer EV outside of an event

A General Motors Hummer EV chassis sits in front of an Hummer EV outside an event where GM CEO Mary Barra announced ta $7 billion investment in EV and battery production in Michigan in January 2022.

Bill Pugliano/Getty Images

“Energy and information are two basic currencies of organic and social systems," the economics Nobelist Herb Simon once observed. "A new technology that alters the terms on which one or the other of these is available to a system can work on it the most profound changes.”

Electric vehicles at scale alter the terms of both basic currencies concurrently. Reliable, secure supplies of minerals and software are core elements for EVs, which represent a “shift from a fuel-intensive to a material-intensive energy system,” according to a report by the International Energy Agency (IEA). For example, the mineral requirements for an EV’s batteries and electric motors are six times that of an ICE vehicle, which can increase the average weight of an EV by 340 kgs (750 pounds). For something like the Ford Lightning, the weight can be more than twice that amount.

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Ownership of AI-Generated Code Hotly Disputed

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An illustration of a pixilated person on a ladder placing code.
Edmon De Haro

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Learn How Global Configuration Management and IBM CLM Work Together

In this presentation we will build the case for component-based requirements management

2 min read

This is a sponsored article brought to you by 321 Gang.

To fully support Requirements Management (RM) best practices, a tool needs to support traceability, versioning, reuse, and Product Line Engineering (PLE). This is especially true when designing large complex systems or systems that follow standards and regulations. Most modern requirement tools do a decent job of capturing requirements and related metadata. Some tools also support rudimentary mechanisms for baselining and traceability capabilities (“linking” requirements). The earlier versions of IBM DOORS Next supported a rich configurable traceability and even a rudimentary form of reuse. DOORS Next became a complete solution for managing requirements a few years ago when IBM invented and implemented Global Configuration Management (GCM) as part of its Engineering Lifecycle Management (ELM, formerly known as Collaborative Lifecycle Management or simply CLM) suite of integrated tools. On the surface, it seems that GCM just provides versioning capability, but it is so much more than that. GCM arms product/system development organizations with support for advanced requirement reuse, traceability that supports versioning, release management and variant management. It is also possible to manage collections of related Application Lifecycle Management (ALM) and Systems Engineering artifacts in a single configuration.

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