15 July 2009—Researchers at this year’s International Workshop on EUV Lithography in Honolulu, are discussing new approaches to many of the intransigent problems that plague this long-anticipated yet still-not-ready chip-printing method. These include new ways of generating the extreme ultraviolet (EUV) light, figuring out a better way to inspect nanometer-scale parts of the system, mitigating contamination generated by EUV light sources, and producing sharper nanometer-scale patterns on chips.

The EUV lithography workshop is organized by Vivek Bakshi, a researcher formerly with global chipmaking consortium Sematech, who went on to found EUV Litho, based in Austin, Texas. He says his workshop is more academic and focused on R&D and less commercial than Semicon West, a much larger chip-manufacturing gathering under way this week in San Francisco. Bakshi solicited solutions to problems that have kept EUV lithography from being adopted as the industry standard, even as its only alternative, double-patterning lithography, is strained further to its limits.

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The Transistor of 2047: Expert Predictions

What will the device be like on its 100th anniversary?

4 min read
Six men and a woman smiling.

The luminaries who dared predict the future of the transistor for IEEE Spectrum include: [clockwise from left] Gabriel Loh, Sri Samavedam, Sayeef Salahuddin, Richard Schultz, Suman Datta, Tsu-Jae King Liu, and H.-S. Philip Wong.


The 100th anniversary of the invention of the transistor will happen in 2047. What will transistors be like then? Will they even be the critical computing element they are today? IEEE Spectrum asked experts from around the world for their predictions.

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