Chip Hall of Fame: MOS Technology 6581

A synthesizer that defined the sound of a generation

5 min read
Photo of the SID 6581 chip.
Christian Taube/Wikipedia

1982 was a big year for music. Not only did Michael Jackson release Thriller, the bestselling album of all time, but Madonna made her debut. And it saw the launch of the Commodore 64 microcomputer. Thanks to the C64, millions of homes were equipped with a programmable electronic synthesizer, one that's still in vogue.

The C64 became the bestselling computer of all time (some 17 million were sold) largely because it had graphics and sound capabilities that punched way above the system's price tag: US $600 on release, soon falling to $149. Like many machines from that era, the C64 has a devoted following in the retrocomputing community, and emulators are available that let you run nearly all its software on modern hardware. What's unusual is that a specific supporting chip inside the C64 has also retained its own dedicated following: the 6581 SID sound chip.

Keep Reading ↓Show less

This article is for IEEE members only. Join IEEE to access our full archive.

Join the world’s largest professional organization devoted to engineering and applied sciences and get access to all of Spectrum’s articles, podcasts, and special reports. Learn more →

If you're already an IEEE member, please sign in to continue reading.

Membership includes:

  • Get unlimited access to IEEE Spectrum content
  • Follow your favorite topics to create a personalized feed of IEEE Spectrum content
  • Save Spectrum articles to read later
  • Network with other technology professionals
  • Establish a professional profile
  • Create a group to share and collaborate on projects
  • Discover IEEE events and activities
  • Join and participate in discussions

The Unsung Inventor Who Chased the LED Rainbow

LEDs came only in shades of red—until George Craford expanded the palette

10 min read
Vertical
Man  with grey hair wearing dress shirt and tie standing in front of an LED stoplight and holding a panel with yellow and red LEDs glowing
DarkBlue2

Walk through half a football field’s worth of low partitions, filing cabinets, and desks. Note the curved mirrors hanging from the ceiling, the better to view the maze of engineers, technicians, and support staff of the development laboratory. Shrug when you spot the plastic taped over a few of the mirrors to obstruct that view.

Go to the heart of this labyrinth and there find M. George Craford, R&D manager for the optoelectronics division of Hewlett-Packard Co., San Jose, Calif. Sitting in his shirtsleeves at an industrial beige metal desk piled with papers, amid dented bookcases, gym bag in the corner, he does not look like anybody’s definition of a star engineer.

Keep Reading ↓Show less