Algorithms Replace Spinal Cord In New Approach to Neural Prosthetics

When the spinal cord is the road block, engineers can build a detour

2 min read
Algorithms Replace Spinal Cord In New Approach to Neural Prosthetics

Over years of eavesdropping on the brain with with electrodes, neuroscientists and engineers have decoded the neural patterns of intention in both humans and monkeys. Since then, most labs have plugged these diverted signals into robotic arms, proving that they can use the brain to remotely control sophisticated machinery while undoubtedly giving tremendous hope to people with severed limbs. 

Until now, this research has largely ignored patients with spinal cord injury whose limbs are still there, but which no longer work because they no longer receive stimulation. Lee Miller, a neuroscientist at Northwestern University is working on an elegant solution specifically designed for this population. Rather than feeding recorded brain activity into a prosthetic limb, Miller has shown that he can loop around a dysfunctional spinal cord and plug back into a paralyzed arm, reanimating it with electrical pulses.

In a study published last week in the online version of Nature magazine, Lee describes how a monkey, whose hand was previously paralyzed with a local anesthetic, could learn to grasp objects with that limb, even as the spinal cord remained inactive. Here's how they did it.

Before paralyzing the monkey, the researchers trained it to grasp a ball on command. As it completed the action, they collected electrical recordings from the primary motor cortex in the brain and the muscles in the hand. By observing the patterns from each, they were able to build an algorithm that could monitor brain activity and accurately predict how the hand would respond. After decoding the monkey's intention, the researchers reversibly paralyzed its arm. They continued recording from the brain, but  switched to stimulating in the paralyzed limb. To activate the tissue, they implanted 5 electrodes into the muscles of the forearm that control a basic grasping motion. During the experiment, they used real time results from the prediction model they built during training to activate the electrodes in the muscle. Essentially, the system works like a data detour around the spinal cord. The monkey thinks about moving its arm. A program figures out how it wants to move, with how much force and in which direction, and then activates the proper set of electrodes to carry out the motion. The monkeys were able to voluntarily activate the system and continue grasping the balls.

It's not the first time researchers have resorted to applying electrical pulses to a paralyzed limb. The Functional Electrical Stimulation Center in Cleveland, Ohio treats patients with direct stimulation, but in order to activate the electrodes, they must make a movement with another part of the body or tap into some residual activity in the paralyzed limb. Lee says that his group is the only one using activity in the brain to call the shots, an approach that he says produces a much finer signal.

There are however, many practical problems that need to be solved before a system like this could be implemented in human patients.

"Muscle activation remains pretty difficult," says Lee "Think about putting enough electrodes in the hand to control all the intrinsic hand muscles. We are working with several different colleagues to develop methods that would allow us to stimulate peripheral motor nerves (and all the muscles they control) instead of individual muscles."

It is also not yet certain whether the system will work in patients who have been paralyzed for several years and whose muscles have atrophied from lack of use.

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A photo showing machinery in a lab

Foundries such as the Edinburgh Genome Foundry assemble fragments of synthetic DNA and send them to labs for testing in cells.

Edinburgh Genome Foundry, University of Edinburgh

In the next decade, medical science may finally advance cures for some of the most complex diseases that plague humanity. Many diseases are caused by mutations in the human genome, which can either be inherited from our parents (such as in cystic fibrosis), or acquired during life, such as most types of cancer. For some of these conditions, medical researchers have identified the exact mutations that lead to disease; but in many more, they're still seeking answers. And without understanding the cause of a problem, it's pretty tough to find a cure.

We believe that a key enabling technology in this quest is a computer-aided design (CAD) program for genome editing, which our organization is launching this week at the Genome Project-write (GP-write) conference.

With this CAD program, medical researchers will be able to quickly design hundreds of different genomes with any combination of mutations and send the genetic code to a company that manufactures strings of DNA. Those fragments of synthesized DNA can then be sent to a foundry for assembly, and finally to a lab where the designed genomes can be tested in cells. Based on how the cells grow, researchers can use the CAD program to iterate with a new batch of redesigned genomes, sharing data for collaborative efforts. Enabling fast redesign of thousands of variants can only be achieved through automation; at that scale, researchers just might identify the combinations of mutations that are causing genetic diseases. This is the first critical R&D step toward finding cures.

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