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Experts Plunge Into the Uncanny Valley, Celebrate Masahiro Mori

And Dr. Robot himself makes a rare appearance

2 min read
Experts Plunge Into the Uncanny Valley, Celebrate Masahiro Mori

A plunge into the Uncanny Valley became the most talked about event at a recent robotics conference in Japan. 

Masahiro Mori, the man who proposed the concept of the Uncanny Valley more than 40 years ago, made a rare appearance at the IEEE International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems (IROS) in Tokyo early this month.

Attendees packed a room at the Tokyo Big Sight convention center to listen to Mori, 86, a celebrated researcher and educator whom the Japanese media calls "Dr. Robot." In his presentation, Mori, an emeritus professor at the Tokyo Institute of Technology, retraced the path that led him to the idea of Bukimi-no-Tani, which became known in English as the Uncanny Valley. The idea—an attempt to explain how people react to humanlike robots, prosthetics, and other animated entities—is encapsulated in a now-famous graph (pictured on the poster above).

Mori told the audience that while working on a robotic hand, he became interested in prosthetics. That led him to think about how people respond to different mechanical hands, and how appearance and movement play a big role in that regard. Following his intuitions, he said, he conceived the key hypothesis that our affinity toward a robot abruptly decreases when a lifelike appearance is approached but not attained. This precipitous plunge from acceptance to revulsion is the Uncanny Valley.

One point that surprised many in the audience was Mori's comment that his Uncanny Valley idea had remained "dormant" for four decades, being "awakened" in 2012, when the first English version of his paper was published in the IEEE Robotics & Automation Magazine and online in IEEE Spectrum. At least one panelist respectfully disagreed with Mori, noting that the Uncanny Valley has attracted interest in many disciplines much before that.

As for why we feel this eerie sensation when we see certain robots, androids, and CGI characters, Mori didn't speculate, saying only that there are "open questions" that science has to address. (In fact, researchers are still investigating the possible biological and social roots, seeking to put the Uncanny Valley on firmer scientific ground.) And in terms of robot design, Mori said that, instead of trying to overcome the Uncanny Valley, roboticists should avoid it altogether, building robots that have nonhuman appearance. His final advice: pay attention not only to the big picture but also to the small things and follow your intuitions.

"The Uncanny Valley Revisited: A Tribute to Masahiro Mori," organized by Ken Goldberg of UC Berkeley and Minoru Asada of Osaka University, with help from Hirochika Inoue of the University of Tokyo and Shigeki Sugano of Waseda University, included presentations by roboticists, artists, and media theorists.

Uncanny Valley Revisited Panel IROS 2013 Tokyo


From left: Hiroshi Ishiguro, Minoru Asada, Marek Michalowski, Todd Murphey, Oussama Khatib, Elizabeth Jochum, Masahiro Mori, Ken Goldberg, Noriko Kageki, Peter Lunenfeld, Hirochika Inoue, and Masaki Fujihata.

Below are all the presentations in full (and watch also some of the panelists explaining the Uncanny Valley in less than one minute):


Ken Goldberg (UC Berkeley) introduces Masahiro Mori:


Masahiro Mori, with translation by Noriko Kageki:


Masaki Fujihata (Tokyo University of the Arts):


Elizabeth Jochum (University of Copenhagen):


Peter Lunenfeld (UCLA):


Marek Michalowski (BeatBots):


Hiroshi Ishiguro (Osaka University):


Todd Murphey (Northwestern University):


Oussama Khatib (Stanford University):


Concluding remarks:

The Conversation (0)

The Bionic-Hand Arms Race

The prosthetics industry is too focused on high-tech limbs that are complicated, costly, and often impractical

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A photograph of a young woman with brown eyes and neck length hair dyed rose gold sits at a white table. In one hand she holds a carbon fiber robotic arm and hand. Her other arm ends near her elbow. Her short sleeve shirt has a pattern on it of illustrated hands.

The author, Britt Young, holding her Ottobock bebionic bionic arm.

Gabriela Hasbun. Makeup: Maria Nguyen for MAC cosmetics; Hair: Joan Laqui for Living Proof
DarkGray

In Jules Verne’s 1865 novel From the Earth to the Moon, members of the fictitious Baltimore Gun Club, all disabled Civil War veterans, restlessly search for a new enemy to conquer. They had spent the war innovating new, deadlier weaponry. By the war’s end, with “not quite one arm between four persons, and exactly two legs between six,” these self-taught amputee-weaponsmiths decide to repurpose their skills toward a new projectile: a rocket ship.

The story of the Baltimore Gun Club propelling themselves to the moon is about the extraordinary masculine power of the veteran, who doesn’t simply “overcome” his disability; he derives power and ambition from it. Their “crutches, wooden legs, artificial arms, steel hooks, caoutchouc [rubber] jaws, silver craniums [and] platinum noses” don’t play leading roles in their personalities—they are merely tools on their bodies. These piecemeal men are unlikely crusaders of invention with an even more unlikely mission. And yet who better to design the next great leap in technology than men remade by technology themselves?

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