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Optical Rectenna Could Double Solar Cell Efficiency

While conversion efficiencies are still low, a few tweaks could make the first optical rectenna ready for commercial use in photovoltaics

2 min read
Optical Rectenna Could Double Solar Cell Efficiency
Schematic shows the components of the optical rectenna developed at the Georgia Institute of Technology.
Illustration: Thomas Bougher/Georgia Tech

Researchers at the Georgia Institute of Technology have developed a first of its kind: an optical rectenna, which combines the qualities of an antenna with a rectifier diode. If further refined, the researchers believe the device could lead to a new generation of highly efficient solar cells.

While rectennas have been around since the 1960s, they have not been able to operate at optical wavelengths. The challenge in achieving this goal was to make the antenna portion of the devices small enough as well as fabricating some kind of rectifier into them.

In research published in the journal Nature Nanotechnology, the Georgia Tech researchers were able to overcome this challenge by growing multi-walled carbon nanotubes that serve as antennas for capturing light. In addition, each of the nanotubes has tiny rectifiers built into it that can convert the oscillating charge produced by the waves of light hitting the antennas into a direct current.

Based on what others have done and what the theory is showing us, I believe that these devices could get to greater than 40 percent efficiency [in solar cells],” said Baratunde Cola, an associate professor at Georgia Tech in a press release. That would be about double today’s best solar cell efficiency.

With an enormous number of carbon nanotubes serving as the antennas, one of these devices can produce a fair amount of current. However, the energy conversion efficiency of these devices is still low at around one percent, which is fine for high-temperature detectors but not so great for a solar cell. Nonetheless, the researchers believe that with some optimization techniques they have up their sleeves, they could produce a device within a year that is commercially viable.

“We could ultimately make solar cells that are twice as efficient at a cost that is ten times lower, and that is to me an opportunity to change the world in a very big way,” said Cola.  “As a robust, high-temperature detector, these rectennas could be a completely disruptive technology if we can get to one percent efficiency. If we can get to higher efficiencies, we could apply it to energy conversion technologies and solar energy capture.”

The combination of materials used make the optical rectennas is key to how they function. The researchers first grow metallic multi-walled carbon nanotubes onto a conductive substrate. They then coated the nanotubes with an aluminum oxide material to serve as an insulator using an atomic layer deposition (ALD) process. More than two years ago we saw how ALD fabrication techniques had opened the door for the production nano-antenna arrays for highly efficient solar power devices.

On top of this layer of nanotubes another layer of optically transparent thin films of calcium and aluminum is deposited. The difference in work function between the calcium layer and the carbon nanotubes produces a potential of two electron volts, which is enough to push the electrons out of the nanotube antennas when they are excited by light.

A video describing the devices architecture and function can be seen below.

Cola believes the key to extracting greater efficiency from the devices will involve changing this material mix so that the carbon nanotubes are opened up in such a way as to allow multiple conduction channels, reducing the resistance in the device.

Cola added: “We think we can reduce the resistance by several orders of magnitude just by improving the fabrication of our device structures.” 

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The First Million-Transistor Chip: the Engineers’ Story

Intel’s i860 RISC chip was a graphics powerhouse

21 min read
Twenty people crowd into a cubicle, the man in the center seated holding a silicon wafer full of chips

Intel's million-transistor chip development team

In San Francisco on Feb. 27, 1989, Intel Corp., Santa Clara, Calif., startled the world of high technology by presenting the first ever 1-million-transistor microprocessor, which was also the company’s first such chip to use a reduced instruction set.

The number of transistors alone marks a huge leap upward: Intel’s previous microprocessor, the 80386, has only 275,000 of them. But this long-deferred move into the booming market in reduced-instruction-set computing (RISC) was more of a shock, in part because it broke with Intel’s tradition of compatibility with earlier processors—and not least because after three well-guarded years in development the chip came as a complete surprise. Now designated the i860, it entered development in 1986 about the same time as the 80486, the yet-to-be-introduced successor to Intel’s highly regarded 80286 and 80386. The two chips have about the same area and use the same 1-micrometer CMOS technology then under development at the company’s systems production and manufacturing plant in Hillsboro, Ore. But with the i860, then code-named the N10, the company planned a revolution.

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