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Ford's Smooth-Driving Autonomous Research Car

Latest experimental car, shown at Mobile World Congress, lowers self-driving's visual profile but could raise the bar for delivering a comfortable ride

2 min read
Ford's Smooth-Driving Autonomous Research Car
Smile: you're on LIDAR!
Photo: Ford

Ford's first autonomous research vehicles, with protruding sensors and instruments, “kind of look[ed] like a science project” says Chris Attard, a Ford research engineer who works on their replacement. The new one, a Ford Fusion Hybrid test vehicle—announced in December and displayed here at at this week's Mobile World Congress in Barcelona, Spain—looks like someone installed a few gas canisters on the car's roof rack, except that the canisters spin.

These cylinders house a new generation of light detection and ranging (LIDAR) sensors. There are two on each side of the car, midway along the roof. One on each side tilts, giving the car the ability to detect objects closer to its sides than the older central roof-mounted LIDAR on Google's self-driving prototypes. It is the only non-production sensor added to the Fusion, though the research vehicle does contain some extra processing and communications hardware in the trunk. The engineers also added a wide-angle optical camera to record the vehicle's driving for post-trip analyses.

LIDAR is one of a handful of sensing technologies carmakers are using in prototypes to identify a car's surroundings and help localize the vehicle. The systems are not yet in production, because they cost about as much as a luxury car—Google's may cost about $70 000.

The second-generation LIDARs would make the car conspicuous even without the optical camera, and the crowd milling around the Ford display was in no more danger of confusing the experimental Fusion with its production version than the car was of confusing them with an open road.

A pair of display screens showed in real time the rainbow-colored silhuoettes of visitors, as detected by the experimental vehicle's LIDAR units. Two of those rainbow figures were those of Attard and his colleague Wayne Williams, who discussed the car with curious visitors.

Williams explains that the LIDAR is part of the effort to localize cars with far more precision than is possible with, say, the Global Positioning Satellite (GPS) system. Precise knowledge of a car's location will help algorithms to deliver an accurate and smooth driving experience, he says. Smooth driving also requires sophisticated computation, to account for the complex mix of the car's power output and its always-changing rolling and sliding friction. Delivering a smooth ride, at high speed is how autonomous car makers are likely to differentiate themselves in the future: Each will be developing its own driving algorithms and make different choices about, say, the stiffness of the steering. So the ride in each will differ.

“Look for when they go around a corner, and watch the steering wheel,” he says, referring to a video released last month of a BMW self-driving vehicle recovering from a skid. He breaks into a smile and says he was impressed by how fast and how smooth the steering was, given how hard it is to do the necessary computing in real-time. Then he points to a video playing on the wall of the Ford car on a test track just as the camera switches to the steering wheel. It makes a steady, smooth, hands-free turn.

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We Need More Than Just Electric Vehicles

To decarbonize road transport we need to complement EVs with bikes, rail, city planning, and alternative energy

11 min read
A worker works on the frame of a car on an assembly line.

China has more EVs than any other country—but it also gets most of its electricity from coal.

VCG/Getty Images
Green

EVs have finally come of age. The total cost of purchasing and driving one—the cost of ownership—has fallen nearly to parity with a typical gasoline-fueled car. Scientists and engineers have extended the range of EVs by cramming ever more energy into their batteries, and vehicle-charging networks have expanded in many countries. In the United States, for example, there are more than 49,000 public charging stations, and it is now possible to drive an EV from New York to California using public charging networks.

With all this, consumers and policymakers alike are hopeful that society will soon greatly reduce its carbon emissions by replacing today’s cars with electric vehicles. Indeed, adopting electric vehicles will go a long way in helping to improve environmental outcomes. But EVs come with important weaknesses, and so people shouldn’t count on them alone to do the job, even for the transportation sector.

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