Illustration of several people looking at computers, with large screens showing what they are looking at, and icons referring to programming languages.
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THE INSTITUTESometimes the subjects covered in engineering schools don’t keep pace with what today’s high-tech employers are looking for. Because technology is constantly changing, the most up-to-date information might not be covered in the curriculum.

Fortunately for today’s students, it has never been easier to supplement university coursework with online courses on hot technologies. You can acquire skills that reflect the demands of the job market. Although not all the content is free, there are many great resources that don’t cost a dime.

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The Ultimate Transistor Timeline

The transistor’s amazing evolution from point contacts to quantum tunnels

1 min read
A chart showing the timeline of when a transistor was invented and when it was commercialized.
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Even as the initial sales receipts for the first transistors to hit the market were being tallied up in 1948, the next generation of transistors had already been invented (see “The First Transistor and How it Worked.”) Since then, engineers have reinvented the transistor over and over again, raiding condensed-matter physics for anything that might offer even the possibility of turning a small signal into a larger one.

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