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Chip Hall of Fame: Motorola MC68000 Microprocessor

The processor that powered the original Macintosh, as well as the beloved Amiga computers

1 min read
Motorola MC68000 Microprocessor
Photo: Pauli Rautakorpi

Motorola MC68000 MicroprocessorImage:  Pauli Rautakorpi

MC68000 Micro-processor

Manufacturer: Motorola

Category: Processors

Year: 1979

Motorola was late to the 16-bit microprocessor party, so it decided to arrive in style. The hybrid 16-bit/32-bit MC68000 packed in 68,000 transistors, more than double the number of Intel’s 8086. Internally it was a 32-⁠bit processor, but a 32-bit address and/or data bus would have made it prohibitively expensive, so the 68000 used 24-bit address and 16-bit data lines. The 68000 seems to have been the last major processor designed using pencil and paper. “I circulated reduced-size copies of flowcharts, execution-unit resources, decoders, and control logic to other project members,” says Nick Tredennick, who designed the 68000’s logic. The copies were small and difficult to read, and his bleary-eyed colleagues eventually found a way to make that clear. “One day I came into my office to find a credit-card-size copy of the flowcharts sitting on my desk,” Tredennick recalls. The 68000 found its way into all the early Macintosh computers, as well as the Amiga and the Atari ST. Big sales numbers came from embedded applications in laser printers, arcade games, and industrial controllers. But the 68000 was also the subject of one of history’s greatest near misses, right up there with Pete Best losing his spot as a drummer for the Beatles. IBM wanted to use the 68000 in its PC line, but the company went with Intel’s 8088 because, among other things, the 68000 was still relatively scarce. As one observer later reflected, had Motorola prevailed, the Windows-Intel duopoly known as Wintel might have been Winola instead.

Photo:

Underneath that gold cover is a 32-bit processor, but it’s connected to the outside world with a package that only had pins for 16-bit data.

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The Godfather of South Korea’s Chip Industry

How Kim Choong-Ki helped the nation become a semiconductor superpower

15 min read
A man in a dark suit, bald with some grey hair, leans against a shiny blue wall, in which he is reflected.

Kim Choong-Ki, now an emeritus professor at Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, was the first professor in South Korea to systematically teach semiconductor engineering.

Korea Academy of Science and Technology
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They were called “Kim’s Mafia.” Kim Choong-Ki himself wouldn’t have put it that way. But it was true what semiconductor engineers in South Korea whispered about his former students: They were everywhere.

Starting in the mid-1980s, as chip manufacturing in the country accelerated, engineers who had studied under Kim at Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST) assumed top posts in the industry as well as coveted positions teaching or researching semiconductors at universities and government institutes. By the beginning of the 21st century, South Korea had become a dominant power in the global semiconductor market, meeting more than 60 percent of international demand for memory chips alone. Around the world, many of Kim’s protégés were lauded for their brilliant success in transforming the economy of a nation that had just started assembling radio sets in 1959 and was fabricating outdated memory chips in the early ’80s.

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