Chip Hall of Fame: Acorn Computers ARM1 Processor

Reading this on a smartphone? Then you’re using a direct descendant of this processor right now

2 min read
Photo of Acorn Computers ARM1 Processor

Acorn chipPhoto: Acorn Computers

ARM1

Manufacturer: Acorn Computers

Category: Processors

Year: 1985

In the early 1980s, Acorn Computers was a small company with a big product. The firm, based in Cambridge, England, had sold over 1.5 million 8-bit BBC Micro desktop computers as part of the BBC’s national Computer Literacy Project. It was now time to design a new computer. Unsatisfied with the processors then available on the market, the Acorn engineers decided to make the leap to creating their own 32-bit microprocessor.

They called it the Acorn RISC Machine, or ARM. RISC, which stood for reduced-instruction-set computer, was an approach to designing processors that traded more complex machine code for higher efficiency. The engineers knew it wouldn’t be easy; in fact, they half expected they’d encounter an insurmountable design hurdle and have to scrap the whole project. “The team was so small that every design decision had to favor simplicity—or we’d never finish it!” says codesigner Steve Furber, now a computer engineering professor at the University of Manchester. In the end, the simplicity made all the difference. The ARM was small, low power, and easy to program. Sophie Wilson, who designed the instruction set, still remembers when they first tested the chip in a computer. “We did ‘PRINT PI’ at the prompt, and it gave the right answer,” she says. “We cracked open the bottles of champagne.” In 1990, Acorn spun off its ARM division, and the ARM architecture went on to become the dominant 32-bit processor for embedded application. More than 10 billion ARM cores have been used in all sorts of gadgetry, including one of Apple’s most humiliating flops, the Newton handheld, and one of its most glittering successes, the iPhone. Indeed, ARM chips are now found in more than 95 percent of the world’s smartphones.

Photo: Steve Furber/Acorn Computers

One of the earliest sketches of the ARM1’s architecture.

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Lotfi Zadeh and the Birth of Fuzzy Logic

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Lotfi Zadeh and the Birth of Fuzzy Logic
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The denunciations were sometimes extreme.

“Fuzzy theory is wrong, wrong, and pernicious,” said William Kahan, a highly regarded professor of computer sciences and mathematics at the University of California at Berkeley in 1975. “The danger of fuzzy theory is that it will encourage the sort of imprecise thinking that has brought us so much trouble.”

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