Carbon Emissions Rising Despite European and North American Efforts to Reduce Them

The world would have to begin steeply reducing emissions now to avoid a 1.5-degree rise in temperature by 2050

3 min read
photo illustration of burning coal
Photo-Illustration: Christopher Gould/Getty Images

photo illustration of burning coal Photo-Illustration: Christopher Gould/Getty Images

In 1896, Svante Arrhenius, of Sweden, became the first scientist to quantify the effects [PDF] of man-made carbon dioxide on global temperatures. He calculated that doubling the atmospheric level of the gas from its concentration in his time would raise the average midlatitude temperature by 5 to 6 degrees Celsius. That’s not too far from the latest results, obtained by computer models running more than 200,000 lines of code.

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How to Prevent Blackouts by Packetizing the Power Grid

The rules of the Internet can also balance electricity supply and demand

13 min read
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How to Prevent Blackouts by Packetizing the Power Grid
Dan Page
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Bad things happen when demand outstrips supply. We learned that lesson too well at the start of the pandemic, when demand for toilet paper, disinfecting wipes, masks, and ventilators outstripped the available supply. Today, chip shortages continue to disrupt the consumer electronics, automobile, and other sectors. Clearly, balancing the supply and demand of goods is critical for a stable, normal, functional society.

That need for balance is true of electric power grids, too. We got a heartrending reminder of this fact in February 2021, when Texas experienced an unprecedented and deadly winter freeze. Spiking demand for electric heat collided with supply problems created by frozen natural-gas equipment and below-average wind-power production. The resulting imbalance left more than 2 million households without power for days, caused at least 210 deaths, and led to economic losses of up to US $130 billion.

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