3D Fingerprint Sensors Get Under Your Skin

New sensor uses ultrasound pulses to map out blood vessels within the fingertip, as well as fingerprints

2 min read
Phantom inner layer with bovine blood to mimic finger blood vessel.
Part of an artificial finger with bovine blood in the vessel that was used to test the new sensor.
Photo: North Carolina State University

Many people already use fingerprint recognition technology to access their phones, but one group of researchers wants to take this skin-deep concept further. In a study published January 18 in IEEE Sensors Journal, they described a technique that maps out not only the unique pattern of a person’s fingerprint, but the blood vessels underneath. The approach adds another layer of security to identity authentication.

Typically, a fingerprint scan only accounts for 2D information that captures a person’s unique fingerprint pattern of ridges and valleys, but this 2D information could easily be replicated.

“Compared with the existing 2D fingerprint recognition technologies, 3D recognition that captures the finger vessel pattern within a user’s finger will be ideal for preventing spoofing attacks and be much more secure,” explains Xiaoning Jiang, a distinguished professor at North Carolina State University and co-author of the study.

To develop a more secure approach using 3D recognition, Jiang and his colleagues created a device that relies on ultrasound pulses. When a finger is placed upon the system, triggering a pressure sensor, a high-frequency pulsed ultrasonic wave is emitted. The amplitudes of reflecting soundwaves can then be used to determine both the fingerprint and blood vessel patterns of the person.

In an experiment, the device was tested using an artificial finger created from polydimethylsiloxane, which has an acoustic impedance similar to human tissues. Bovine blood was added to vessels constructed in the artificial finger. Through this set up, the researchers were able to obtain electronic images of both the fingerprint and blood vessel patterns with resolutions of 500 × 500 dots per inch, which they say is sufficient for commercial applications.

Intriguingly, while the blood vessel features beneath the ridges of the artificial finger could be determined, this was not the case for 40% of the blood vessels that lay underneath the valleys of the fingerprint. Jiang explains that this is because the high-frequency acoustic waves cannot propagate through the tiny spaces confined within the valleys of the fingerprint. Nevertheless, he notes that enough of the blood vessels throughout the finger can be distinguished enough to make this approach worthwhile, and that data interpolation or other advanced processing techniques could be used to reconstruct the undetected portion of vessels.

Chang Peng, a post-doc research scholar at North Carolina State University and co-author of the study, sees this approach as widely applicable. “We envision this 3D fingerprint recognition approach can be adopted as a highly secure bio-recognition technique for broad applications including consumer electronics, law enforcement, banking and finance, as well as smart homes,” he says, noting that this group is seeking a patent and looking for industry partners to help commercialize the technology.

Notably, the current set up using a single ultrasound inducer takes an hour or more to acquire an image. To improve upon this, the researchers are planning to explore how an array ultrasonic fingerprint sensors will perform compared to the single sensor that was used in this study. Then they aim to test the device with real human fingers, comparing the security and robustness of their technique to commercialized optical and capacitive techniques for real fingerprint recognition.

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Europe Expands Virtual Borders To Thwart Migrants

Our investigation reveals that Europe is turning to remote sensing to detect seafaring migrants so African countries can pull them back

14 min read
A photo of a number of people sitting in a inflatable boat on the water with a patrol ship in the background.

Migrants in a dinghy accompanied by a Frontex vessel at the village of Skala Sikaminias, on the Greek island of Lesbos, after crossing the Aegean sea from Turkey, on 28 February 2020.

ASSOCIATED PRESS

It was after midnight in the Maltese search-and-rescue zone of the Mediterranean when a rubber boat originating from Libya carrying dozens of migrants encountered a hulking cargo ship from Madeira and a European military aircraft. The ship’s captain stopped the engines, and the aircraft flashed its lights at the rubber boat. But neither the ship nor the aircraft came to the rescue. Instead, Maltese authorities told the ship’s captain to wait for vessels from Malta to pick up the migrants. By the time those boats arrived, three migrants had drowned trying to swim to the idle ship.

The private, Malta-based vessels picked up the survivors, steamed about 237 kilometers south, and handed over the migrants to authorities in Libya, which was and is in the midst of a civil war, rather than return to Malta, 160 km away. Five more migrants died on the southward journey. By delivering the migrants there, the masters of the Maltese vessels, and perhaps the European rescue authorities involved, may have violated the international law of the sea, which requires ship masters to return people they rescue to a safe port. Instead, migrants returned to Libya over the last decade have reported enslavement, physical abuse, extortion, and murders while they try to cross the Mediterranean.

If it were legal to deliver rescued migrants to Libya, it would be as cheap as sending rescue boats a few extra kilometers south instead of east. But over the last few years, Europe’s maritime military patrols have conducted fewer and fewer sea rescue operations, while adding crewed and uncrewed aerial patrols and investing in remote-sensing technology to create expanded virtual borders to stop migrants before they get near a physical border.

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