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Sir Arthur C. Clarke, Science Fiction Author and Visionary, Dies at 90

Sir Arthur C. Clarke, science fiction colossus and visionary, who first espoused the idea of geosynchronous satellites for telecommunications, died today in Colombo, Sri Lanka. He had turned 90 on December 16, 2007.

When I visited him in January, he was in the hospital with severe back pain. Since then, he has been in and out of the hospital. The end came around 1:30 a.m. Wednesday Sri Lanka time (about 4:00 p.m. Eastern today) and was because of breathing difficulties, the Associated Press is reporting. He had been suffering from post-polio syndrome, which left him wheelchair bound; he had a bout of polio in the late 1950s.

I found Sir Arthur - he was knighted in 2000 - to be a warm, funny and magnanimous man. Even though he was in severe pain and confined to a hospital bed, he said he would meet me since I had made the long trip.

He had been interviewed by Spectrum on occasion of the 50th anniversary of the launch of Sputnik 1. Here's the link to the piece:

Sir Arthur had a restless intelligence, and a mischievous sense of humor. Though confined to a wheelchair because of his condition in recent years, he kept up his spirits, saying this left him with more time to think and roam the universe with his mind.

He told me that he thinks his most important contribution is his 1945 paper in Wireless World that talked about geostationary satellites and telecommunications. He also added that a future generation may think it is the space elevator - if the space elevator is ever built. He was one of the space elevator's early champions.

He wrote a hundred works of fiction and non-fiction. He was also an accomplished underwater explorer.

The New York Times has posted a good obituary of him:

The world will miss him.

Arthur C. Clarke, 1917-2008

Arthur C. Clarke has died. Or, rather befitting his visionary stature, he dies tomorrow, because as January Magazine points out, it's already tomorrow in Sri Lanka.

I think this L.A. Times obit is right: "It didn't seem possible that we would ever hear such news: Didn't Clarke seem timeless?"

Clarke spoke with Spectrum's Saswato Das this past January. You can listen to his final interview here.

Interactive Brokers Announces Winner of Olympiad Trading Contest

Interactive Brokers Group, a global brokerage and trading firm, announced today the winner of its Collegiate Trading Olympiad, a trading-software contest for college students.

And the top prize of US $100,000 cash goes to...

...Christopher Michalak, a PhD student at the University of British Columbia, in Vancouver.

As I described in an article about the contest last year, Interactive Brokers, headquartered in Greenwich, Conn., created the Olympiad to highlight the need for engineers and scientists in the financial industry -- as well as to spot talented students and hire them.

In the contest, the participants -- 372 students from 32 countries -- had to elaborate a trading strategy and then code an automated trading application to carry out that strategy. Each student started with $1 million in virtual money and had eight weeks to trade equities, options, futures, warrants, bonds, and currencies (the trades were virtual, taking place on Interactiveâ''s simulation system, but the buying and selling prices were based on real market data).


If he decides to go work in the financial industry, Michalak, who grew his account to a final balance of $3,135,104 by the end of the competition, would be the typical "quant." At the University of British Columbia, he works at a lab called the Advanced Numerical Simulation Laboratory on topics like "efficient steady-state convergence for high-order solution of turbulent aerodynamic flows."

As I wrote in my article, the financial industry has long sought to hire math whizzes, physics PhDs, and other prodigy types to work as quantitative analysts, or â''quants.â'' Their job is to concoct pricing models, probe new ways to quantify risk, and mine mountains of data. Now, as automated trading systems take over ever more of the substantive work on Wall Street, many firms are seeking quants who not only know the math but the nuts and bolts of IT systems, too.

For those interested in careers combining finance and technology, the contest is a rare opportunity to see how real-world applications work -- and maybe get some money to help pay for tuition. The contest is awarding a total of $400,000 in prizes to students, including two second-place prizes of $50,000 each and many $10,000 and $1,000 prizes.

If you missed the 2008 Olympiad, wait for the next one later this year. More details should appear at the Olympiad page on Interactive's web site.

Photo: Interactive Brokers technical operations center in Greenwich, Conn.

Low power is the new black

Today, Actel announced a new family of low-power FPGAs (PDF) whose power consumption bottoms out at 5 microwatts. Actel CEO John East told me that low power chips like these will let portable device designers add features while still keeping cost and battery life constant. Think ultrathin phones with Microsoft Exchange.

East proselytizes low-power wherever he goes. Not only are low-power chips one part of the solution to global climate change, but who doesn't want their laptop to have a longer battery life?

Actel is by no means alone in its focus on low-power. At February's International Solid State Circuits Conference, Intel released technical details for a new low-power processor code-named "Silverthorne" (a good name for a bodice ripper) which was just launched this month as "Atom" (not a good name for a bodice ripper). Intel launched the Atom processor specifically for mobile internet devices and computers that are designed specifically (and only) to surf the interwebs.

Actel's low-power FPGAs are part of a larger mission for East that includes re-engineering the country's relationship with nuclear energy and dominating the "Martian" chip market. I don't know if he's just really good at selling it, but he's definitely a great interview.

Out of Africa: the Riddle of Solar Electricity

One of the hottest new approaches to generating electricity today is "solar thermal," a form of capturing sunlight in order to convert water into steam, which in turn drives a conventional electricity-producing turbine. Solar thermal, as a concept, has been around since the 19th century, but in recent years the technology has undergone a revolution, helped by new designs and materials.

I visited last week with Ausra, one of the leaders in the solar thermal revival. Founded by an Australian inventor named David Mills, the company moved from Australia to Palo Alto, California a few years ago at the urging of legendary Silicon Valley financier Vinod Khosla who believed the company would thrive with more capital and the prospect of partnerships with American electric-utilities.

Khosla's vision seems to be coming true. Ausra specializes in providing large-systems to electricity grids and last year the company struck a deal to build a solar thermal plant for PG&E.

The PG&E plant remains years away from generating electricity but Ausra is already getting inquiries from all over the world. The key selling point: national electricity grids, suffering from shortages, can immediately benefit from solar thermal.

While India and China have the greatest needs for electricity going forward, sub-Saharan Africa is suffering from an unprecedented shortage, with South Africa -- the region's biggest economy -- suffering the most. Solar thermal as a technology would seem ideal for sub-Saharan Africa.

Indeed, Ausra is fielding requests from African governments and electricity companies -- and giving a stock answer, John O'Donnell, an executive vice president for the company, told me.

The answer to the Africans is "be patient."

"We're just saying we want to get proven in the U.S. before we take the next step," he says. "We donâ''t want to get overstretched."

For Africa, with its difficult business and geographic conditions, "you want well-proven systems," O'Donnell says.

"But once some of the technical risks are taken out and we're more experienced, solar thermal is clearly going to be part of the solution to Africa's electricity needs."

Ausra's approach -- providing electricity to a national grid -- runs counter to virtualy all of the current solar approaches in Africa, which is why solar thermal as a technology is worth watching closely. At present, solar in Africa is very small-scale and most often deployed at the level of villages (that are off the grid) or individual homes or buildings in cities (where excess electricity is not even fed back into the grid).

The trouble with these small solar systems is that they are costly, and especially so relative to the electricity generated.

O'Donnell describes proponents of small, off-grid solar in Africa as "romantic dreamers." He thinks the main show in solar should move away from simplistic notions about rural self-sufficiency and instead concentrate on helping to fill the growing demand in African cities for electricity.

Until now, solar in Africa has been dominated by romantics. O'Donnell predicts that will change. "Every African country is looking at solar thermal," he says. "The question is the maturity of the technology, over the next five years, we should begin to get the answers that Africans want to hear."

Reaping what you sow in Nanotech

The Foresight Institute in its blog is a bit disturbed by the promotional copy for a new Public Television series entitled â''Nanotechnology: The Power of Smallâ'' . To their view the ad copy seems to be focusing on the negative aspects of nanotechnology.

Indeed it does. What did you expect? Synthesis and clarity may be pleasing, but discord and controversy interest us. How else do you explain the popularity for so many years of the Jerry Springer show? Or the recent Point/Counterpoint on nanotechnology within the LA Times?

But what is truly so remarkable about the Foresight Instituteâ''s concern is that in at least a couple of the controversies they have contributed mightily to creating these perceptions. Namely that nanotechnology will play some part in compromising our privacy and that we can use nanotechnology to extend our life indefinitely (read "Transhumanists").

Both of these technological futures have found a voice through the Foresight Institute, so it seems ironic that they are concerned now that nanotechnology might be painted in a bad light because of them.

Outside of the molecular nanotechnology community there is hardly a word from any other quarters about how nanotechnology will makes us live forever or relegate us to living in a Big Brother society. In fact, with the latter it seems that IT and telecommunications have done a splendid job of taking our privacy away without any help from nanotechnology. So, now that you have created a controversy, where one did not exist previously, you complain that people are using it as marketing copy for a TV special? Odd.

It is likely that the NSF-funded TV series will do its best to hype the controversies surrounding nanotechnology, and then gently reassure you--to a point. A sign of the direction of the program comes from the fact that the Project on Emerging Technology, which has tried every angle to amplify the risks of nanotechnology, not the least of which is to promote its â''long listâ'' of products that employ nanotechnology (is 500 really that long a list?), will be presenting a premiere of the new program. Do you have any lingering doubts about what themes will be discussed? It will probably go something like this: with 500 consumer products on the market incorporating nanotechnology, do we have any idea what nanotechnology is or what it will do to us? Sigh...

While the Foresight Institute has kept a balanced view of the risks of nanotechnology when it comes to human health and the environment, they have helped to create the idea that somehow nanotechnology is going to impinge on our privacy and they have certainly been at the forefront of somehow using nanotechnology to extend our life indefinitely. Now they are reaping what they helped to sow.

We need a bill to ban importing other people's nuclear waste?

I've been half-following this story, and I can't tell if it's a tempest in a teapot, or the real thing. Today Tennessee Rep. Bart Gordon, the chairman of the House Science and Technology Committee, introduced legislation to ban the Nuclear Regulatory Commission from allowing us to import foreign-generated nuclear waste.

â''No other country in the world is accepting nuclear waste from other countries,â'' said Gordon. â''By doing so, the United States is putting itself in position to become the worldâ''s nuclear dumping ground.â''

According to the terms of the bill, the president can grant specific exemptions if an application shows importing said waste would serve a national or international policy goal, such as a research purpose.

In February, Utah-based EnergySolutions applied for an NRC license to import 20,000 tons of low-level nuclear waste (that means no glowing rods) from decommissioned nuclear reactors in Italy. The waste would be ultimately disposed of at a site in Clive, Utah. â''The United States has only a finite amount of space available for disposal of nuclear waste,â'' said Gordon.

Vietnam Set to Launch First Satellite

Citing a need to upgrade its communications infrastructure, the Socialist Republic of Vietnam said today that it's ready to join the satellite club.

According to numerous sources (Associated Press, Reuters, and others), Vietnam has purchased a specially-built satellite from Lockheed Martin for US $200 million and will spend an unreported amount to launch it into orbit next month aboard an Ariane 5 rocket built by ArianeSpace SA, of Evry, France.

The satellite, known as VINASAT-I, has the transmission capacity to handle 10 000 voice/Internet/data channels or 120 television channels, according to the Vietnam Posts and Telecommunication Group (VNPT) and has an expected lifespan of 15 to 20 years.

A spokesperson for the state-sponsored group said the country will also build a pair of ground stations to work with VINASAT-I, in northern Ha Tay province and southern Binh Duong province. These will bring the total price tag of the project up to $300 million, a sum the Communist government hopes to recoup over the next decade.

"Vietnam has reached the point where significant improvements of the telecommunication infrastructure are needed for its economic and social development," VNPT Vice General Director Nguyen Ba Thuoc said at a press conference in Hanoi today.

He said that growth in the telecommunications sector in Vietnam has risen sharply in the last few years, with some 19 million people subscribed to Internet services and 30 million signed up for cell phones (out of a population of 85 million).

Up until now, Vietnam has been leasing satellite services from Australia, Thailand, and Russia at a cost of $15 million.

The 2.4 metric ton satellite is scheduled for launch April 12 from the Centre Spatial Guyanais, at Kourou, French Guiana (the same base that launched the European Space Agency's Jules Verne Automated Transfer Vehicle on Sunday).

"Vietnam will be more active to improve network capability and quality of telecommunication, IT, and communication services and to reduce the gap between cities and rural areas," added Thuoc.

He noted that the new satellite will meet public needs such as providing weather information and navigation guidelines to fishing ships and oil rigs, as well as offer remote health-care and education services to islands and remote areas.

The launch will make Vietnam the fifth Southeast Asian nation to operate its own satellite service, joining Thailand, Indonesia, Malaysia, Singapore, and the Philippines, which all told employ 80 spacecraft in geostationary orbit.

Landmark Funding for Water Ship

Today, Houston-based Water Standard Company announced an unprecedented funding commitment from two New York-based investment funds, which were so impressed with the startup's plan that they invested $250 million: that's arguably the largest initial funding in the history of the water industry.

Water Standard's plan is to create a fleet of Seawater Desalination Vessels-- mobile, ship-based water treatment facilities that can churn out 300,000 cubic meters of drinking water per day. Water Standard CEO Amanda Brock explained to me how these ships could end the global water crisis.

It's a truism of the 21st century that water is the new oil. Global warming is already catalyzing droughts throughout China, Australia and now the Western United States (among many other places). At this point, El Paso, Texas gets 40% of its water from so-called "toilet-to-tap" wastewater recycling. Some municipalities are luckier. If you're on a shoreline, you have a limitless supply of ocean water to desalinate. But global warming is the gift that keeps on giving-- in addition to creating further droughts, experts also predict that the severity and number of hurricanes and typhoons will rise over the coming century. Such storms hit hardest on shores, and they have the capacity to knock a coastal desalination plant into the middle of next week.

Brock argues that her ships are a better bet for seawater treatment than conventional shore-based plants. Aside from their ability to get out of the path of a hurricane, the ships are also better at protecting the environment.

Evironmentalist don't much like the land-based facilities because their technology is hazardous to marine life. Those plants have to suck in seawater with so much force that they often trap fish and other marine life in the stream. Needless to say, the fish don't survive the process. But Water Standard says its water intake and discharge systems minimize the technology's impact on marine life.

The full story is at Spectrum Online.

â¿¿Nanotechnology Phoneâ¿¿ Now Has a Video

For those of you interested in the mobile phone this blog highlighted last month, and which may not be available for another seven years, you now have a video to while away the time until the phone hits the market.


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