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Google's Autonomous Car Takes To The Streets

google autonomous car

Remember 5 years ago when a bunch of robotic cars managed to navigate through the desert all by themselves? And remember 3 years ago when a bunch of robotic cars managed to navigate through a (fake) urban area all by themselves? Well, today it’s the future, and autonomous robotic cars from Google have already logged 140,000 miles on busy, complex city streets and highways with only occasional human intervention, and 1,000 miles without any human control whatsoever.

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Humanoid Baby Diego-San Looking for Makeover Advice

I’m sure you remember Diego-San, whom we spotted in an issue of Kokoro News back in January. Reactions to these pictures were… Well, let’s just say, reactions were decidedly mixed. And by decidedly mixed, I mean predominantly negative. Diego-San’s createor, Dr. Javier Movellan, has been exploring possible alterations to Diego-San’s face, and has made this concept public:

As Dr. Movellan pointed out in one of his comments on our post, a lot of what’s relevant about designing the appearance of a humanoid robot is simply about trial and error:

“Everybody has strong opinions about why the current version generates such negative reactions: face too large, robot babies are freaky, skin texture is wrong, mixing mechanical body with biological face is scary, giganto-babies are scary … For just about every theory examples can be given that contradict the theories. The truth is nobody really knows. It is a trial and error process.”

With that in mind, Dr. Movellan is looking for some feedback (constructive feedback, please) on what you do and don’t like about this new concept for Diego-San’s face. Personally, I’d say it’s a good start, with the helmet, antenna and exposed electronics all reinforcing the fact that the robot isn’t intending to fool you into thinking it’s real. However, I’d be curious as to what the effect would be if more of the human features were removed. Like, what is strictly necessary for the robot to accomplish its research goals, which may not necessarily involve a substantial amount of expression recognition? Does Diego-San need ears, for example? A nose?

While one route might be to make it less human, the other route would be to make it much more cartoony. So basically, keep all the human features, just make it look intentionally fake… Again, the idea being that you’re reinforcing the fact that the robot isn’t trying to fool you into thinking it’s human.

Anyway, please let Dr. Movellan know what you think by posting a comment. For more background, read through some of the comments on our original post, and Plastic Pals has a very interesting interview with Dr. Movellan here.

[ UCSD Machine Perception Lab ] VIA [ Plastic Pals ]
[ Original Kokoro News Article (*.PDF) ]

Berkeley Bionics Introduces eLEGS Robotic Exoskeleton

The woman in this picture is Amanda Boxtel, who has had a T11/12 spinal injury for 18 years. She’s a paraplegic, but she’s now able to walk with the aid of eLEGS, a robotic exoskeleton system from Berkeley Bionics. You probably remember Berkeley Bionics from their cargo-carrying exoskeleton, HULC, which they’ve since licensed to Lockheed Martin for production for the military. eLEGS is largely based on HULC, except designed for (eventual) home use. The system is relatively light at 45 pounds, and you strap into it by yourself while sitting down. After only a few hours of practice, paraplegics are able to use eLEGS to stand up and walk:

eLEGS is very efficient, and allows for an entire day of walking without needing to be recharged. It’s also extremely quiet, which is very important for a device that is designed to allow you to move around and interact with people in public and social situations.

berkeley bionics elegs

I made a point of asking how exactly the interface between the user and the system works, and was told that it was proprietary, “but nice try.” In general, however, it appears as though eLEGS senses arm movements through ’smart crutches’ (it also looks like there’s some kind of sensor attached to each upper arm), and as the user moves one crutch forward, eLEGS moves the opposite leg. However, to some extent eLEGS learns and adapts to each user, so there must be some other stuff going on under the hood.

eLEGS will be available next July to a select group of rehab centers, but from the beginning, eLEGS was designed for people to take home and use by themselves. By 2013, eLEGS should be available for purchase for something in the low six figures, although the eventual target price is something in the neighborhood of $50k, which is equivalent to a top of the line wheelchair.

I especially liked what Amanda says at the end of the video:

“This is not a wave of the future. The eLEGS is right now. I don’t have to be hopeful… This is reality.”

It’s pretty awesome to realize how true that is.

[ Berkeley Bionics ]

Humanoid Robots Rise. Now, Can They Walk?


Watch out, Asimo, there are some new humanoids on your tail! Photo: Honda

Japan has long held world dominance when it comes to full-body walking humanoid robots. There's the pioneering Waseda robots, the impressive HRP series, the diminutive but nimble Sony Qrio and Toyota Partner robots, and of course, the country's most famous emissary: the charismatic, child-size, astronaut-like Honda Asimo, which ambles, runs, and climbs stairs with (almost) perfect precision. Until recently, only South Korea -- with its Hubo and Mahru robots -- had demonstrated humanoids with legs as impressive as those of their Japanese counterparts.

Now other countries are trying to catch up. Below I describe four humanoids that may give the Asian humanoids a run for their money. Or as one editor here put it, these robots may kick your Asimo.

But first, a digression. Every time I encounter a roboticist building legged humanoids, I ask the same question, Why do we need legged humanoids? Wheels appear to be easier and cheaper to implement and provide great maneuverability -- so why legs?

The answer they give me is two-fold: First, they argue that robots with human-shaped bodies are more apt to navigate human environments. So if we want robots to operate in our homes and offices, where there are stairs, uneven surfaces, and shaggy rugs, we need legs. The second part of the answer is that by building walking humanoids we can better understand how humans walk, balance, and move our bodies to do things like pirouette on a toe or perform incredible kicks.

After hearing their answer, my next question to the humanoid builder is, And why is it so hard to create full-body walking humanoids? Researchers have been working on this for over three decades and it seems we're still taking, well, baby steps. When can we expect a quantum leap in humanoid legged locomotion?

The answer is too complex -- and too interesting -- to summarize here; I will have to write another post on this topic. For now, let's just say there is a preferred walking control scheme, but some researchers are betting on competing approaches, and that although dc motors are the preferred actuators, some groups are seeking alternatives such as compact, powerful linear actuators.

Okay, so here are the four humanoids. Let me emphasize we're showing here only full-body adult-size humanoids. Yes, there are small humanoids capable of walking, of course, like the Nao; there are also robot legs that can run at full speed -- but that lack an upper body; and there are full-body humanoids that still have to show they can take a step. So the robots below are the ones we think could take on Asimo in robot race, or soccer match.

Did we leave out a robot you think should be here? Let us know in the comments section below.

REEM-B
Pal Robotics, Barcelona

Reem-B was designed to assist humans with everyday tasks, says Davide Faconti, founder of Pal Robotics. The 1.47-meter-high robot, unveiled two years ago, can walk at a relatively slow speed of 1.5 kilometers per hour, but thanks to powerful actuators in its legs and arms, Reem-B "is probably the strongest humanoid in the world," says Faconti, boasting that his robot can carry a 12-kilogram payload—say, a big watermelon. Try that, Asimo.


Photo: PAL Robotics

Watch Reem-B walking. The video is a bit old. I'd love to know if Pal has continued to improve the robot's mobility and see what it can do today.

JUSTIN
Institute of Robotics and Mechatronics at the German Aerospace Center (DLR), Oberpfaffenhofen-Wessling, Germany

Justin is by far one of the most impressive humanoids unveiled in recent years. Its lightweight, strangely shaped arms are amazingly dexterous, and the German researchers are consistently pushing the envelope in terms of hardware and software design. At every major robotics conference you can expect to see Justin showing off a new trick.


Photos: Institute of Robotics and Mechatronics/DLR

The thing is, Justin, at this point, is not actually a full-body humanoid. It's currently an upper body with head, torso, and two arms that can be mounted on a fixed base or a four-wheeled mobile platform [see photo above].

The reason we're including it here is because DLR researchers have demonstrated early this year a pair of legs that we suspect may become Justin's lower body.

The legs use the same powerful yet lightweight motors employed in Justin's arms. The idea was to explore joint torque-based control concepts for biped balancing and walking, according to Christian Ott, the lead researcher working on the legs.

If Justin's lower body turns out to be as nimble as its upper body, this robot will be able to do things we have never seen a robot doing before.

Watch the DLR legs in action:

CHARLI
Virginia Tech's Robotics & Mechanisms Laboratory, Blacksburg, Va.


Photo: Virginia Tech

We wrote about CHARLI before. CHARLI is the first untethered, autonomous, full-size walking humanoid robot built in the United States, according to Virginia Tech roboticist Dennis Hong. Hong loves creating acronyms for his robots. CHARLI stands for Cognitive Humanoid Autonomous Robot with Learning Intelligence.

There are actually two CHARLI models. One, smaller, called CHARLI-L uses motors and a linkage system of pulleys and springs to generate movement. Hong and his team are now building a heavier version, CHARLI-H, to be equipped with custom-made linear actuators. See CHARLI-H's future leg on the photo, right.

Hong is secretive about these new actuators, saying only they will help mimic how human limbs move. (They rely on compliance, or "springiness," at the joints instead of stiff position control like most other humanoid robots use, Hong says.)

I look forward to seeing CHARLI-H play the humanoid league in RoboCup! Will it kick like Roberto Carlos?

Watch CHARLI-L taking somewhat timid steps, but steps nonetheless!

SURENA 2
University of Tehran's Advanced Vehicles Center, Tehran

Finally, we're including here the Iranian robot Surena 2, unveiled a few months ago, just because it was such a surprising development. After the first reports surfaced, some people were skeptical the robot was more than an Asimo-looking plastic shell. But finally, video proved the humanoid was indeed a humanoid.

The 1.45-meter-high robot was developed to help researchers explore aspects of bipedal locomotion, Tehran University professor Aghil Yousefi-Koma told IEEE Spectrum. His team is working on a feedback control system that yields a much more humanlike motion.

Surena might be a slow walker, but it has its tricks: It can bow, stand on one leg, and according to some news reports, dance. Dance-off, Asimo?


Photo: Alireza Sotakbar/ISNA/AP

Surena 2 shows off its skills:

Read also:

NASA Ready to Send Humanoid to Space
Fri, September 03, 2010

Blog Post: In one giant leap for robotkind, NASA's Robonaut will join the crew of the International Space Station

Humanoids vs. Humans in Soccer
Mon, August 09, 2010

Blog Post: Can a team of soccer-playing robots beat the human World Cup champions by 2050?

Humanoid Justin Learning To Fix Satellites
Thu, June 17, 2010

Blog Post: Justin is a dexterous humanoid robot that can make coffee. Now it's learning to fix satellites

Humanoid Mimics Person's Movements
Tue, April 27, 2010

Blog Post: An operator wearing a sensor suit can control this Korean robot's arm and leg movements in real time

Biped Robot Petman Achieves 4.4 mph
Thu, April 22, 2010

Blog Post: Boston Dynamics has released a new video showing its Petman biped robot achieving 4.4 mph on a treadmill

Hubo II Robot Is Lighter and Faster
Tue, March 30, 2010

Blog Post: The creator of Albert Hubo is back with a new, better, sword-wielding humanoid robot

Honda on the Past, Future of Robotics
Tue, February 02, 2010

Blog Post: A short documentary film by Honda, presented at this year's Sundance Film Festival, ponders our robotic future

Researchers Using Rat-Robot Hybrid to Design Better Brain Machine Interfaces

ratcar

A strange creature, half robot, half rat, has been seen scuttling across a laboratory in Japan. It's RatCar, a rat-vehicle experiment that scientists hope could lead to improved mobility for people with disabilities.

Researchers at the University of Tokyo wanted to see whether rats could control a miniature vehicle through the brain signals that move their limbs. They recently presented their project at the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society annual conference in Buenos Aires, Argentina.

"We wanted to develop a brain-machine interface system aiming for future wheelchairs that paralyzed patients can control only with thought," says Osamu Fukayama of the university's Medical Engineering and Life Science Laboratory. "RatCar is a simplified prototype to develop better electrodes, devices, and algorithms for those systems."

Unlike some brain-machine interface, or BMI, devices that rely on noninvasive EEG to detect neural activity, the RatCar works through direct contact with the brain. Other researchers have used this technique in getting rats to control robotic grippers and monkeys to control computer cursors and even advanced robot arms.

ratcarIn the RatCar, tiny neural electrodes [the dark dots on the tip of the device shown on the photo, right] were implanted in the motor cortex of rat brains, and the animals were suspended under a lightweight, motorized "neuro-robotic platform" with wheels. The objective was to make the vehicle collaborate with the rats to achieve the locomotion they desire.

The rats were trained on the car by towing it around an enclosed area with the motors disengaged. A vision system positioned above tracked the rats by following colored markers on their backs and the vehicle. It fed the positions into a "locomotion estimation model" program that correlated the motion of the animals with readings from the electrodes.

Next the rats were suspended more tightly to the car so their limbs touched the floor only slightly. The researchers then switched the system into "neuro-robotic mode," with the neural signals used to help drive the car. Six out of eight rats used in the study adapted well to the car.

"The vehicle moved forward synchronously with a rat when it was placed inside," says Fukayama, but he adds that the degree to which the car was being controlled by the rat itself was unclear.

Since the rat would be forcibly moved along with the car, measuring its real intentions became a challenging problem. Another difficulty was that only a small percentage of the electrodes actually recorded neural activity, and the recorded neurons didn't necessarily correlate with target movements. 

Fukayama and colleagues Takafumi Suzuki and Kunihiko Mabuchi plan to perform more experiments to address the uncertainties. They want to confirm that the rats can drive the car in different directions and also measure the force that the rats are exerting when trying to move under the car. That way, they could track differences in its motion and the rats' apparent intentions.The less force, the better the neural link is working.

Rats have helped bring about many medical breakthroughs, and we'll see whether they'll help make thought-controlled wheelchairs commonplace.

Images: University of Tokyo's Medical Engineering and Life Science Laboratory

Read also:

Cyborg Fly Pilots Mobile Robot
Thu, August 26, 2010

Blog Post: Swiss researchers have made a fruit fly steer a mobile robot through an obstacle course

Man Replaces Eye with Bionic Camera
Fri, June 11, 2010

Blog Post: Canadian filmmaker Rob "Eyeborg" Spence has replaced his false eye with a bionic camera eye

Monkey Controls Robot with Mind
Wed, June 02, 2010

Blog Post: A monkey with a brain-machine interface commands a 7-degree-of-freedom robotic arm

Robot Bacteria Builds Pyramid
Thu, March 25, 2010

Blog Post: Researchers made a swarm of bacteria perform micro-manipulations and build a tiny pyramid

Cockroach-Inspired Robot Dashes Off
Tue, October 13, 2009

Blog Post: This UC Berkeley robot can survive a 7-story fall -- and dash off at high-speed

Omniwheels Gaining Popularity in Robotics

A recent workshop that involved some rapid development using RoboCup robots, a demonstration of KUKA's omniMove platform, and my previous posts on KUKA's youBot and the ETH Zurich's Rezero ballbot have gotten me interested in omniwheels.

Omniwheels and their variations (also called omnidirectional wheels, Swedish wheels, Mecanum wheels, or Ilon wheels) are an ingenious invention that allows a platform to move in any direction while facing any other direction.

Historically, omniwheels date back to a 1919 patent by J. Grabowiecki, and have since been created in many different designs. Since their introduction by the Cornell RoboCup team in 2000 (see Raffaello D'Andrea's research paper), they have been widely used in some RoboCup categories, where they allow the soccer robots to move in a straight line, while rotating along the line in order to arrive with the desired orientation.

Apart from the RoboCup setting, omniwheels are also used in omnidirectional conveyor systems, for example for handling packages. As you can see from the top picture (showing the parts of the custom-made omniwheels for the Rezero project), the mechanical design of omniwheels is complex. This, along with the inevitable vibrations and comparatively high wear and tear, have limited their use to a few niche applications.

One such niche is moving very heavy or large goods such as large aircraft wings or the rotor blades of wind energy plants. The picture above shows KUKA's heavy load carrier, the HLC 60000. Built in 2007, it is used for internal logistics with payloads of up to 60 tons. The biggest KUKA omniMove vehicle ever built is 32 meters long, 4 meters wide and has a payload of 100 tons.

Other niches are forklifts for aircraft carriers made by U.S. company Airtrax or some versions of Segway's RMP platform.

Another interesting, but still more futuristic, application of omniwheels is to drive the spheres used in ballbots like Masaaki Kumagai's BallIP and the Rezero (or in cars in the movie "I, Robot," where they allow omnidirectional movement without reorientation of the drive unit).

Will omniwheels become the wheel choice for robotics, or will they remain a niche?

More photos:

Ray Oung's Distributed Flight Array wheel (DFA)

Omniwheel on the Rezero robot at the ETH Zurich in Switzerland

Thanks Raff, Robert, Ray and Mike!

Long Exposure Pictures of Robots Cleaning

This is a set of all of the different long exposure pics that I’ve taken while doing reviews of cleaning robots. I spent a likely excessive amount of time reviewing each robot in detail (and you can read those reviews at the links below), but really, the pictures explain the cleaning patterns better than I ever could. It’s illuminating (so to speak) to see them all right up against one another, so here they are:

iRobot Roomba 560, 45 minutes

Neato Robotics XV-11, 12 minutes

Evolution Robotics Mint (Sweeping Mode), 15 minutes

Evolution Robotics Mint (Mopping Mode), 23 minutes

Three very different robots, three very different cleaning techniques. Check out the individual reviews for more details on each.

[ iRobot ]
[ Neato Robotics ]
[ Evolution Robotics ]

Interview: Ken Goldberg Discusses Telerobots, Androids, and Heidegger


Ken Goldberg explores the interactions between technology, art, and media. Photo: Martin Sundberg

This year saw the invasion of telepresence robots—electromechanical avatars that allow you to be there without actually being there. Today, half a dozen companies are selling, or will start selling, these robots. I’ve tested two of the robots myself, discussing at length their technical merits as well as their practical shortcomings, and even helped a colleague build his own robotic self.

Although the technology behind these robots is fascinating, I’m also interested in the historical and philosophical aspects of telepresence. Telepresence robots didn’t come out of nowhere; they stem from a convergence of different technologies, each with its own history. The advent of robotic telepresence also reflects a moment in time when many of us are becoming ever more connected and available.

 

  special report:
   Telepresence

So what made these robots possible now? What’s so appealing about roaming around as a machine in a remote place? And where is this technology taking us, literally and figuratively?

To explore these themes, I spoke with Ken Goldberg, a robotics professor at the University of California, Berkeley, and a member of IEEE Spectrum’s editorial advisory board. When he’s not building robot cameras to spot wild birds or computer-controlled flexible needles that steer through soft tissue, he’s delving into the interactions between technology, art, and media.

If anyone can make a connection between robots and Heidegger, it’s Ken.

Erico Guizzo: I've recently asked Marvin Minsky what he thought of current telepresence robots. He complained that they don’t have legs. And I’ve seen other people complaining that they don’t have arms. What do you think of their design?

Ken Goldberg: The main issue is cost. When you add legs or arms, you need more actuators, more sensors, more computation, and it gets expensive very fast. But at the same time, robotic parts and technologies are getting better and cheaper. I think it was Brian Carlisle [former CEO of Adept Technology], who said that if you can sell a car, which is a lot of metal and a lot of engineering together, for under 10,000 dollars, we should be able to do the same for robots. We need volume to make them cheaper. So, of course, we want robots that clean up the house and hopefully change diapers. But we have to start somewhere, and the one thing that is easier to do is communication. Today’s telepresence robots are communication tools, and they raise some interesting design questions. For instance, how tall should they be? Rovio [a home robot sold by WowWee] is small, so you probably can’t have an eye to eye conversation, unless you want to talk to your kids. Or your cat. I think height, and eye to eye interaction, is important. Another thing I consider key is the ability to point at things. And that’s easy: You need just a laser and a two-axis gimbal. So there are many design issues to consider if you want to make telepresence a powerful experience.

EG: And why do we want to physically extend ourselves to distant places anyway? Telephone and Skype aren’t enough?

KG: The idea of remote control, that you can click a button here and something happens over there, is a very powerful and satisfying experience. We love our TV and garage remotes. Robots have a very intertwined history with this idea of remote operation. It might go back to Tesla’s famous experiments with a radio-controlled boat, which he demonstrated in New York in 1898. After World War II, the first robots were master-slave telerobots used to handle radioactive substances. Today telerobots are used for exploration, in space and underwater, and more recently for bomb disposal. Now, telepresence is different because you’re not manipulating an object or performing a repair; you’re interacting with people. So there are humans on both ends. The goal is to give the remote operator a sense that he or she is closer to the people on the other end. And hopefully vice versa. Naturally, the telephone and things like Skype are more or less trying to do the same thing. But the key question is, What’s missing? How can you make the experience of “being there” more fulfilling? One of the benefits of the robots is that they enhance the sense of agency, of being an agent, in the remote environment. You are not just a passive conversationalist; you can actually move around and explore. And that really matters. The ability to control where you are is empowering and gives you a different set of possibilities. There’s more spontaneity and discovery.

EG: In 2001 you edited a collection of essays titled, “The Robot in the Garden: Telerobotics and Telepistemology in the Age of the Internet.” One of the articles, by John Canny and Eric Paulos, describes a telepresence robot [image, right] very similar to the commercial versions we’re seeing today. Why did it take nearly 10 years for these robots to become commercially viable?

KG: Back then when people like John Canny and Eric Paulos were developing various kinds of telerobots and camera systems, the Internet and wireless networks weren’t as fast and reliable as they are today. Now networks have more bandwidth, better quality of service, lots of error correction. That makes a huge difference. The other thing that has changed is that it’s less expensive to build a robot today, because the components you need are getting better and cheaper. So you’re seeing these companies coming out, like Vgo and Anybots, trying to commercialize these robots. The big question is, When can they get the price down to a point where it’s available to a large number of people? When that happens, things will get very interesting.

EG: Today we use cellphones, e-mail, instant messaging, Twitter, Facebook—and soon some of us may be using telepresence robots. We’re staying connected in more ways and for longer periods of time. Where is this going?

KG: I explore some issues related to that in a course I teach with Dreyfus [UC Berkeley philosopher Hubert Dreyfus] on the philosophy of technology. The goal of the course is to discuss what is the “essence” of technology. We want to give students, many of whom will be creators of technology, a broader historical and social perspective to understand technology. Our starting point is a 1954 essay by Heidegger, “The Questions Concerning Technology.” Let me say first that Heidegger is a problematic figure. He wasn’t the nicest guy. But we can’t dismiss everything that he wrote. He’s considered by many as a fundamental philosopher for the 21st century. So, in a nutshell, what Heidegger says in this essay is that technology is really a “mode of being,” a sort of attitude or culture we are immersed in. It’s not something we can consciously adopt. It’s all around us, we’re engulfed in it. He says we’re in a technological mode of being that is all about making the world available. The key concept here is availability. For example he mentions the Rhine River. Rather than approaching the river as primitives, who might ponder how the gods created the river, or artists and poets, who would focus on the beauty of the river, our approach is that the river is a resource to generate power. He argues that we approach the world around us, nature in particular, as something that we should use to make other things available. Where it gets really interesting is that the availability starts to take on momentum of its own. So we don’t necessarily want anything in itself; all we want is everything to be transformable into something that we’ll need in the future. The key thing that Heidegger hints at and he worries about is that this worldview, if it continues in the direction it’s going, will overwhelm us, and then we’ll do the same thing to ourselves: We’ll see ourselves as resources.

EG: I guess Heidegger would have hated telepresence robots…

KG: Yeah, maybe. Telepresence is another form of availability, going beyond the forms we have. As technologists, we’re excited about it, but from Heidegger’s perspective, it’s another step along that trajectory that he is worried about. He’s not a doomsayer; he’s just saying we should beware. At the end of the essay he comes to this point where he sees this supreme danger, when we’ll be engulfed and overwhelmed and we’ll want to make ourselves constantly available. And you see that today with Facebook , Twitter, smartphones, compared to 10 years ago. We’ve become much more instantly available to each other and to the world, and we are willing to put out all kinds of information that were previously private. And also we are, especially the younger generations, happy to be available. So we’re transforming ourselves into resources. But Heidegger also saw a bright side, a way out of this situation. As we move closer to being consumed by this technology mode of being, the positive outcome is that we’ll be jolted into realizing what we’re doing and we’ll have the capability of stepping out of it. In other words, he’s saying we have to hit bottom before we stop the madness.

EG: Almost ten years ago, you participated in a telepresence research project called the Teleactor, using people as proxies for other people. Is the Teleactor a precursor to robotic telepresence?


Teleactor Annamarie Ho. Photo: Bart Nagel

KG: The idea there was to have a person—the teleactor—who would be your proxy and go to a place when you’re unable to go yourself. The teleactor would wear a camera and microphone, transmit that data over the Net, and you’d see and hear through them. So you would finesse the robot part by having a human. The teleactor also had an ear piece and would get instructions from you about where to go and who to talk to. We did a lot of experiments, but the technology was not there yet. First we were using analog video and we were constantly getting interference. Then we switched to Wi-Fi, and it was the first versions of Wi-Fi, and it had its own problems. The network connections were also slow, and we were constantly fighting network delays. And we were using Java applets that were slow and Web interfaces that barely had video capabilities. It was primitive. I wished we had 4G networks to do the audio and video. That would have made things much easier!

EG: So when the operator spoke, the teleactor repeated what was said?

KG: Not in a robotic way. You can imagine that if the teleactor is just literally talking and acting like a robot—that’s sort of creepy. [Laughs.] Our idea was more like an actor taking directions from the remote person. So the teleactor can also improvise a little. Imagine it’s a meeting or a party and I’m connected to a teleactor. The teleactor can see a group of people and go near them, or just wait for you to decide where to go. We wanted to investigate the interactions that would take place and see how they’d compare to normal situations. I think someone should repeat the experiment today. Imagine you hire out-of-work actors, who love to engage with strangers, and send them as teleactors to parties and events. People who can’t attend the party in person would go as teleactors.

EG: And in the future we can replace teleactors with androids! We’re already seeing some steps in that direction. What do you think of telepresence robots that look like people, like the androids Hiroshi Ishiguro is creating?

KG: When we think about robots they are sort of generic in shape and appearance. [Ishiguro] is not doing that at all. His robots are not only very human but also very specific to individual humans. And these are not just functional machines that’d do work or entertain; these things are actually out there to act as surrogates in a very real way. It’s an idea with connections to psychology, mythology, and science fiction. It goes back to Galatea, the Golem, and later Pinocchio and Frankenstein and Blade Runner, and all the attempts to create something that’s very lifelike. He’s really pushing the limits and asking some deep questions about ourselves. It’s a really Cartesian question: Are we automatons or not? If robots become indistinguishable from humans, how are we going to treat them? It also forces us to reflect about our own mortality. It evokes this memento mori—just remember we’re going to die. Life is short: appreciate the present. How will you be remembered, if at all? Can something of me live beyond me? With these robots, just like a portrait or statue or other replica, you’ll be able to have something that conceivably could live beyond your existence. These androids help us explore these questions. Maybe we’ll discover that there are things we want to avoid. But the only way we’re going to know is by experimenting.

Review: Evolution Robotics Mint Sweeper

Evolution Robotics’ Mint sweeper robot made its debut at CES 2010, where we got a demo of it exhibiting its cleaning behaviors on video. Mint offers flexibility by doing away with the vacuum entirely, and using either wet or dry cleaning pads, Swiffer style. It’s certainly simpler, but does it work as well as the competition? Our review, after the jump.

-Design

Mint is adorable. I like its clean lines and straightforwardly modern black and white color scheme. It’s compact (10 inches wide, 3 inches high), but at about 4 pounds I wouldn’t call it light. On top, it has three backlit operation buttons and three small indicator lights, and that’s the extent of the interface, although it also sings to you to let you know when it’s charging, finished, stuck, etc.. The big black diamond is how Mint localizes itself on your floor; more on that later.

Mint’s ‘chin’ is a pressure-actuated bumper, similar to other robot vacuums. It also has a frontal proximity sensor with which it can detect impending obstacles to prevent itself from running headlong into walls and stuff.

Underneath, Mint has two drive wheels and two casters that also serve as edge sensors… Mint is heavily weighted towards its butt, so if the casters drive off a ledge, the robot won’t tip forward and has plenty of time to stop and back up.

The system for attaching Mint’s cleaning pads is ingenious. There’s a detachable panel that sticks to the bottom of Mint’s chin with strong magnets, and the cleaning pads wrap around that. To get the pads to stay on, you “zip” them into two sets of rubber teeth, and then snap the panel onto Mint and you’re good to go.

It’s very secure while also being very easy to change. The modularity of the system also means that you can stick just about anything on there, from Swiffer pads to the reusable cloths that come included with Mint to something of your own.

Mint doesn’t have a charging dock. To charge it, you use a wall adapter that plugs in underneath the robot. The manual suggests that you charge Mint while its standing on its butt, which makes it take up less space, but then you can’t easily grab it by the butt-mounted handle. It might have been better to put the charging port on the side of the robot instead, which would allow for a bit more flexibility, but I suppose that’s a pretty minor quibble.

-Cleaning Technique

First, let’s just get one fact out of the way: Mint does not clean carpets. The manual spells it out on page one… Mint is for indoor use on hard surface floors only, specifically wood, tile, vinyl, linoleum, and laminate. So, if you have lots of carpet, Mint may not be for you.

If you have carpet and hardwood or tile, Mint can deal with that. Mint is supposed to avoid getting on any area rugs you might have by registering their edges with its sensors, but if your rugs are too flat, Mint will get on them anyway. If this is a problem for you, the manual suggests that you place obstacles around carpet to dissuade Mint from getting on them, but this isn’t necessarily a very practical thing to do for most people. In our testing, Mint avoided thick shag area rugs, but once (out of six trial runs) got onto a thinner rug that had rounded edges.

The way Mint approaches cleaning isn’t pseudo-random like the Roomba; it’s more like the Neato XV-11 in that it actively builds a map of each area it cleans. Mint doesn’t have any integrated localization sensors, but instead depends on an external reference point to tell it where it is in a room.

This is a NorthStar cube. It’s essentially a little infrared projector that shines some spots onto your ceiling. The big black diamond on top of Mint can spot those spots, and Mint uses their relative orientation to figure out where it is and which way it’s going. You don’t really have to pay much attention to where exactly you stick the cube, as long as it’s in the same room that you want Mint to be cleaning and it has a clear view of the ceiling. This location information, combined with Mint’s proximity and drop sensors, allows it to build a map of the entire area that it’s cleaning.

NorthStar isn’t strictly necessary to get Mint to work, and it’s not a problem if Mint gets underneath something and can’t localize for a little while. If you don’t use NorthStar at all, Mint won’t be able to localize itself, and consequently will clean a smaller area and not do its edge cleaning behavior. This can actually be a good thing, though, for small areas like a bathroom. If you want Mint to clean more rooms, you can buy additional NorthStar cubes to help it navigate.

Mint uses two different cleaning techniques depending on whether you tell it to sweep or mop, based on what motions are most effective with what type of cleaning pad. The dry sweeping technique is a straight line approach, where Mint covers open areas in a back and forth pattern and then makes a complete edging circuit. For mopping, Mint also does straight lines, but while moving along each line it goes forward and back and to each side in a sort of “Y” motion. We’ve got some long exposure pictures that show this very well just below.

-Cleaning Effectiveness

As discussed, Mint cleans using two different techniques depending on whether it’s mopping or sweeping. I took a long exposure image of each of these patterns, and the differences are pretty cool. First is sweeping; Mint finished the room in about 15 minutes:

You can easily see the linear coverage pattern of the open space, as well as the edge coverage behavior. Mint did miss a small area at the lower left which temporarily contained a cat. The cat did not suffer any permanent physical damage, but I can’t speak to potential emotional trauma.

Here’s the mopping pattern, which took Mint a little over 20 minutes to execute:

It’s essentially a similar coverage pattern, except with the addition of the back and forth scrubbing behavior and without doing the edging.

As you can see Mint has no problems navigating around corners, under furniture, and avoiding (most) rugs. We have a tangle of cords under our entertainment center, and Mint didn’t get caught or disconnect anything after multiple runs.

I mentioned that Mint was cute, and its cleaning behavior is equally adorable. I’ve always liked watching cleaning robots at work, but Mint is my favorite, because you can see it thinking… Whenever Mint updates its internal map based on new data and decides where to go next, it pauses and its little indicator lights blink for a second. To me, this small touch lends it an incredible amount of personality.

While sweeping, Mint is excellent at picking up dust and small patches of dirt and hair, which actually stick to the pad. In open areas, it’s likely more effective than you wielding a Swiffer because of Mint’s consistent, overlapping coverage. Mint does have problems with larger objects and will just push them into corners and next to walls since they don’t get trapped on the pad. For example, we have some pet rats in our living room (in a cage, obviously), and they like to toss sunflower seed shells onto the floor. Mint doesn’t pick these up. It also has problems with big clumps of cat hair and dust bunnies, since it pushes them around as well. The dry pads also aren’t great at dealing with stickiness; they’re basically just for small dry things like dust and hair.

Overall the wet pads did a better job at cleaning since they (combined with the mopping behavior) were more effective at breaking up dirt and getting stuff to stick to them. Impressively, the pad that came with Mint stayed moist, even while cleaning most of our living room. The difference was easy to notice when walking around barefoot. Mint didn’t do quite as well on grouted tile, because it was hard for it to get down into the grout lines as effectively.

When Mint finishes cleaning, it sings at you, and then returns to where it started, which is both handy and adorable. The battery is supposed to last 3 hours dry sweeping and 2 hours wet mopping, and I never had any issues with Mint running out of power. The only thing you have to do after Mint finishes (besides plugging it in) is either tossing the pad in the trash if you used a disposable one, or tossing it in the laundry if you used a reusable one. Otherwise, there’s no additional maintenance… I didn’t experience any issues with hair tangled in the wheels or anything like that.

It is slightly irksome that there’s no easy way to confine Mint to a specific area. Placing the NorthStar cube does mean that Mint will tend to not to stray to far from there, but if you don’t want it under your couch or something, you basically have to go old school and block it off by putting stuff on the floor.

Mint not having a vacuum means that it doesn’t sound like a vacuum. In fact, I would describe Mint as silent, for all practical purposes. There’s an almost imperceptible hum from the wheel motors when it moves, but otherwise, it’s just the noise of the pad moving over the ground. What this means is that you can run Mint while you’re home, like when you’re on the couch watching TV, and it won’t bother you in the least.

-Conclusion

Many things about Mint seem, at first blush, to be compromises in functionality when compared to other cleaning robots like the Roomba or the Neato XV-11… Mint can’t be scheduled. Mint doesn’t have a charging dock. Mint can’t clean carpet. However, Mint is designed to be simple and straightforward, and you probably won’t find yourself missing those features. Realistically, even though the Neato XV-11 and Roomba dock themselves and will run on their own when you’re not around, you still have to empty their dustbins, which means that you’re spending similar amounts of time on post-cleaning maintenance for all three robots.

Another thing to keep in mind is, as Nancy Smith from iRobot told us, cleaning robots (at this point) aren’t really able to duplicate the level of cleaning that a human can accomplish with an upright vacuum or a mop. Mint is not really designed to clean a very dirty floor, but it’ll keep an already clean floor clean. You can run it every day, or every other day, and it’ll help keep dirt, dust, and pet hair under control with only minimal effort from you.

Personally, I was more than satisfied with how well Mint cleaned, although I’m not sure why I wouldn’t just have it use its wet cloth and mopping technique every time, since it seemed to clean better and it left my floors all shiny. Also, the fact that Mint is silent is a major plus, because it means I can use it whenever I need to and it doesn’t prevent me from doing other important things, like napping.

So, the big question: how does Mint compare to iRobot’s Roomba and Neato’s XV-11? Well, firstly, it’s $250, which is cheaper than either the Roomba ($300 and up for a 500 series) or the XV-11 ($400). Secondly, it doesn’t do carpet, so if you want a robot that cleans carpet… Yeah, it’s not gonna be Mint. On hardwood, Mint does as well or better than the other robot vacuums at daily maintenance of dust and pet hair, but suffers at times from the lack of a vacuum for picking up larger pieces of debris. While sweeping, Mint is similar in speed to the XV-11, and significantly faster than the Roomba. Mint’s ability to use different types of cleaning techniques (wet and dry) is also a bonus, and its lack of noise is a major distinguishing feature.

I’d recommend Mint if you’re considering a robot vacuum and don’t have a lot of carpet to deal with. Mint is smart, it’s versatile, it’s quiet, and it’s (relatively) cheap. It does have some issues picking up larger clumps of dirt and hair, but as a simple maintenance robot, it’s very effective.

Now, I realize that I may not have explicitly answered all of your questions, but fear not, I’ll be on the phone with Evolution Robotics in the next couple days for a follow-up post in which they’ll personally be answering all of the questions that I haven’t been able to, as well as whatever new comes up based on this post.

You can find out more about Mint at the Evolution Robotics website, and buy one from MintCleaner.com.

The r3 Rope Robot

I've recently had the chance to visit ETH Zurich's M3-Lab, which is part of the Sensory Motor Systems group headed by Robert Riener, and which contains one of the world's most advanced rope robots. The r3 uses ropes guided over deflection units and pulled by motorized winches to move end effectors to any point in space. A modular winch setup allows payloads of up to 100kg and top speeds of up to 18m/s. The necessary stiffness is provided by using Dyneema ropes with very little stretch (<1%) and a very stiff aluminum frame (see pictures below).

In addition, the r3 can also function as a tendon-based haptic interface: Combining information from absolute position measurement units and high-resolution motor encoders allows to determine absolute winch positions at any given time. Force sensors on each rope, and a sampling frequency of 4 kHz complete the setup, making the robot a very versatile platform.

The r3 is built around a large CAVE (Cave Augmented Virtual Environment), equipped with multiple large projection screens and an advanced 3D sound system to provide a realistic and immersive simulation of environments.

The Somnomat project shown in the video above uses the r3 system to conduct sleep research. Here is what Joachim von Zitzewitz, the lead researcher of the project, has to say on the Somnomat's motivation:
 

A child is rocked to sleep. Adults drowse in a rattling train. But why? Not much information about vestibular feedback on sleep is found in literature. Therefore, we want to investigate the underlying mechanisms by moving the test subject in different degrees of freedom while he/she is sleeping. Additionally, we focus on the influence of other modalities (acoustic, brightness of light) on sleep.

As in other sleep research projects, the additional equipment on the Somnomat monitors several physiological data such as heart rate, breathing frequency, EEG. Future studies starting in 2011 will investigate correlations between these data and the vestibular stimulation - a system identification of the test person if you will.

Bad timing of my visit did not allow me to test-sleep the bed (yet!), because the robot is also concurrently used in two other projects that focus on highly different dynamics: The rowing simulator recreates the experience of rowing on a river, down to the dynamics of the oar entering the water and the crowds cheering from the shore. The athlete sits in a rowing scull mounted at the center of the CAVE, with the r3 robot's ropes connected to the outer ends of the oar. As you row, the robot displays oar forces in 3D in accordance with the user's movements.

A third project focuses on understanding motor learning of fast movements by using the robot to support a tennis-like 3D-movement. It implements different assistive controllers, such as position control or path control (i.e., controller restricting the user's movement to a given trajectory in space).

With single rope axis generating peak forces of up to 900 N, guaranteeing the r3's safety has been a major focus, and a series of safety measures have been implemented (e.g., all drive trains are equipped with electro-mechanical brakes which block the winch in case of an emergency) and tested with dummies (see my favorite picture at the end of the post).

 

 

Thanks Joachim!

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Automaton

IEEE Spectrum's award-winning robotics blog, featuring news, articles, and videos on robots, humanoids, automation, artificial intelligence, and more.
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