U.S. Court Postpones Decision On .africa Domain Name

The highly sought after domain name remains in legal limbo

2 min read
U.S. Court Postpones Decision On .africa Domain Name
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On Monday 4 April, a California court cancelled a hearing to determine whether the .africa domain could be released to a South African domain-name registry by the nonprofit Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN). According to ICANN, which issues and manages generic top-level domains on behalf of the global Internet community, the court will issue a ruling at an unspecified future date. The delay prolongs a four-year debate over which of two registries should control the continent’s prized domain. Registries resell domain name rights to registrars such as GoDaddy, which, in turn, sign up Web addresses from customers under that domain.

ZA Central Registry technically won the rights to .africa back in 2013 via ICANN’s official process for delegating geographic domain names. ICANN’s decision was challenged in court by a rival registry called DotConnectAfrica.

The legal battle to determine .africa’s true owner could take months or years to resolve. Though DotConnectAfrica has requested an injunction asking the court to prevent the immediate transfer of .africa to ZA Central Registry, the cancellation of Monday’s hearing is no guarantee that it won’t still grant ZA Central Registry a green light to launch .africa in the meantime.

Neil Dundas, executive director of the organization that backs ZA Central Registry told IEEE Spectrum in March that if the injunction were dismissed, ICANN could probably issue the .africa domain to ZA Central Registry within two weeks. Then, ZA Central Registry would be required to host a live .africa site for a month-long trial period. The public sale of .africa sites would begin soon after.

The popularity of so-called “not com” domains has exploded in recent years as website owners find the most commonly used extensions (.com and .org) have become too crowded, and the shortest and easiest-to-remember addresses were already taken.

In response, ICANN invited registries to apply to create new domain names for the Internet. Since 2012, the organization has released more than 900 new domain names for public use, including .yoga, .bar, and .viking.

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Metamaterials Could Solve One of 6G’s Big Problems

There’s plenty of bandwidth available if we use reconfigurable intelligent surfaces

12 min read
An illustration depicting cellphone users at street level in a city, with wireless signals reaching them via reflecting surfaces.

Ground level in a typical urban canyon, shielded by tall buildings, will be inaccessible to some 6G frequencies. Deft placement of reconfigurable intelligent surfaces [yellow] will enable the signals to pervade these areas.

Chris Philpot

For all the tumultuous revolution in wireless technology over the past several decades, there have been a couple of constants. One is the overcrowding of radio bands, and the other is the move to escape that congestion by exploiting higher and higher frequencies. And today, as engineers roll out 5G and plan for 6G wireless, they find themselves at a crossroads: After years of designing superefficient transmitters and receivers, and of compensating for the signal losses at the end points of a radio channel, they’re beginning to realize that they are approaching the practical limits of transmitter and receiver efficiency. From now on, to get high performance as we go to higher frequencies, we will need to engineer the wireless channel itself. But how can we possibly engineer and control a wireless environment, which is determined by a host of factors, many of them random and therefore unpredictable?

Perhaps the most promising solution, right now, is to use reconfigurable intelligent surfaces. These are planar structures typically ranging in size from about 100 square centimeters to about 5 square meters or more, depending on the frequency and other factors. These surfaces use advanced substances called metamaterials to reflect and refract electromagnetic waves. Thin two-dimensional metamaterials, known as metasurfaces, can be designed to sense the local electromagnetic environment and tune the wave’s key properties, such as its amplitude, phase, and polarization, as the wave is reflected or refracted by the surface. So as the waves fall on such a surface, it can alter the incident waves’ direction so as to strengthen the channel. In fact, these metasurfaces can be programmed to make these changes dynamically, reconfiguring the signal in real time in response to changes in the wireless channel. Think of reconfigurable intelligent surfaces as the next evolution of the repeater concept.

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