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Top 10 Programming Languages

Spectrum’s 2014 Ranking

1 min read
Top 10 Programming Languages

Editors Note: This is the free sneak peak that accompanies the 2014 Top Programming Languages interactive app. For this year’s top 10 programming languages, head on over to this year’s sneak peek, or just jump directly to the full interactive app. The app lets you customize the rankings to meet your own needs, whether you are looking for a job, wondering what are the hot languages for mobile development, or want to see what’s trending in open source.

Working with computational journalist Nick Diakopoulos, IEEE Spectrum has weighted and combined 12 metrics from 10 sources (including IEEE Xplore, Google, and GitHub) to rank the most popular programming languages. If you don’t agree with our weighting, want to see more languages, or are interested in what’s dominant in a specific subsector, such as mobile, go to our online interactive version. There you can adjust the weight of each metric and create your own custom ranking.

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The Future of Deep Learning Is Photonic

Computing with light could slash the energy needs of neural networks

10 min read
Image of a computer rendering.

This computer rendering depicts the pattern on a photonic chip that the author and his colleagues have devised for performing neural-network calculations using light.

Alexander Sludds
DarkBlue1

Think of the many tasks to which computers are being applied that in the not-so-distant past required human intuition. Computers routinely identify objects in images, transcribe speech, translate between languages, diagnose medical conditions, play complex games, and drive cars.

The technique that has empowered these stunning developments is called deep learning, a term that refers to mathematical models known as artificial neural networks. Deep learning is a subfield of machine learning, a branch of computer science based on fitting complex models to data.

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