The December 2022 issue of IEEE Spectrum is here!

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The Secret Life of Birds

How do you study a thing that doesn't want to be studied?

13 min read

Sometime next month, not long after winter has called it quits, Alan Mainwaring will board an old 12-meter-long work boat and take it across the icy waters of Bar Harbor, Maine, to a small, rocky patch of land that the locals know as Great Duck Island.

There, he and a few colleagues will get to work, setting out a series of small plastic cylinders across a meadow and some woods at the island's southern edge.

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The Transistor at 75

The past, present, and future of the modern world’s most important invention

2 min read
A photo of a birthday cake with 75 written on it.
Lisa Sheehan

Seventy-five years is a long time. It’s so long that most of us don’t remember a time before the transistor, and long enough for many engineers to have devoted entire careers to its use and development. In honor of this most important of technological achievements, this issue’s package of articles explores the transistor’s historical journey and potential future.

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