The New Wrinkle in Graphene Is Wrinkles

Wrinkles in the surface of graphene contain band gaps that are produced structurally rather than chemically

2 min read
The New Wrinkle in Graphene Is Wrinkles
Image: RIKEN

One of the holy grails of graphene research has been a method for achieving wafer-scale growth of wrinkle-free single-crystal monolayer graphene on a silicon wafer.

Now researchers at the RIKEN research institute in Japan have discovered that the wrinkles in graphene may be their most attractive feature.

In research published in the journal Nature Communications, the RIKEN scientists discovered that the wrinkles found in graphene create unique electronic qualities, specifically a one-dimensional electron confinement. This restriction of electron movement results in a junction-like structure that changes from a zero-gap conductor to a semiconductor and back to zero-gap conductor.

The other revelation yielded by this research is that it’s possible to manipulate the wrinkles to change graphene’s band gap using mechanical methods rather than chemical techniques.

“Up until now, efforts to manipulate the electronic properties of graphene have principally been done through chemical means, but the downside of this is that it can lead to degraded electronic properties due to chemical defects,” said Yousoo Kim, who led the RIKEN team, in a press release. “Here we have shown that the electronic properties can be manipulated merely by changing the shape of the carbon structure. It will be exciting to see if this could lead to ways to find new uses for graphene.”

The discovery that it was possible to produce graphene semiconductors without the need to chemically dope the carbon sheets was the result of trying to produce graphene films using chemical vapor deposition (CVD). They were attempting to use CVD to grow graphene on a nickel substrate; they were examining how they could control the process with changes in temperature.

“We were attempting to grow graphene on a single crystalline nickel substrate, but in many cases we ended up creating a compound of nickel and carbon, Ni2C, rather than graphene,” explained Hyunseob Lim, the paper’s lead author, in a press release. “In order to resolve the problem, we tried quickly cooling the sample after the dosing with acetylene, and during that process we accidentally found small nanowrinkles, just five nanometers wide, in the sample.”

When examining the wrinkles with a scanning tunneling microscope, the researchers discovered that there were band gaps within them, which meant that they could act as semiconductors.

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Two Startups Are Bringing Fiber to the Processor

Avicena’s blue microLEDs are the dark horse in a race with Ayar Labs’ laser-based system

5 min read
Diffuse blue light shines from a patterned surface through a ring. A blue cable leads away from it.

Avicena’s microLED chiplets could one day link all the CPUs in a computer cluster together.


If a CPU in Seoul sends a byte of data to a processor in Prague, the information covers most of the distance as light, zipping along with no resistance. But put both those processors on the same motherboard, and they’ll need to communicate over energy-sapping copper, which slow the communication speeds possible within computers. Two Silicon Valley startups, Avicena and Ayar Labs, are doing something about that longstanding limit. If they succeed in their attempts to finally bring optical fiber all the way to the processor, it might not just accelerate computing—it might also remake it.

Both companies are developing fiber-connected chiplets, small chips meant to share a high-bandwidth connection with CPUs and other data-hungry silicon in a shared package. They are each ramping up production in 2023, though it may be a couple of years before we see a computer on the market with either product.

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