The December 2022 issue of IEEE Spectrum is here!

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The Art of Failure 2012

Failure analysts show off the strange stuff they find in their microscopes

1 min read

Photo: Lim Saw Sing/Infineon Technologies
People on the Beach: That’s what Lim Saw Sing saw in this scanning electron microscope image. Lim, who works at Infineon Technologies’ facility in Kulim, Malaysia, exposed a polyimide surface to etching by reactive ions. The resulting image won first prize at the 2012 IEEE International Symposium on the Physical and Failure Analysis of Integrated Circuits (IPFA 2012).

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The Transistor at 75

The past, present, and future of the modern world’s most important invention

2 min read
A photo of a birthday cake with 75 written on it.
Lisa Sheehan

Seventy-five years is a long time. It’s so long that most of us don’t remember a time before the transistor, and long enough for many engineers to have devoted entire careers to its use and development. In honor of this most important of technological achievements, this issue’s package of articles explores the transistor’s historical journey and potential future.

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