Making Terahertz Lasers Commercially Viable

Harvard researchers demo a widely tunable and compact terahertz laser that teases the possibility of near-term commercial applications

3 min read
red laser beam

Despite lurking between microwaves and infrared, terahertz radiation is notoriously difficult to tap into for applications because of its peculiar physics. Over the past few decades, frequency tunable sources across this 0.3- to 3-terahertz range of the electromagnetic spectrum have remained elusive to researchers.

“Electronic sources [of radiation] tend to get weaker and weaker as you go up in frequency,” says Henry Everitt of the DEVCOM Army Research Lab, as their material properties limit the performance of devices as one approaches the terahertz region. “So, [while] the microwave region is very mature…when you get up above 100 gigahertz [0.1 THz], power just falls off like crazy.” From the other end, optical sources of radiation (for example, infrared lasers), get worse as one goes down in frequency, again because of material properties. “The terahertz just happens to be the region where both of these techniques struggle.”

As a result, Everitt adds, tapping into the terahertz spectrum needs “to be something more than just electronics or just optics.” In search of a practical source for this range of the spectrum, Everitt, along with colleagues from the Harvard John A. Paulson School of Engineering and Applied Sciences (SEAS), have demonstrated a terahertz laser that is compact, operational at room temperature, and widely tunable—features that earlier sources have struggled with.

The researchers used a quantum cascade laser (QCL) pump with a methyl fluoride molecular laser. This compound reacts strongly with optical fields, absorbing infrared and emitting terahertz radiation. The QCL also works in a far more compact laser cavity than earlier carbon dioxide lasers. In their proof-of-concept tests, the team reported 120 individual frequencies between 0.25 and 1.3 THz.

Schematic of the experimental setup. A gold-plated silicon wafer was used as a beam splitter to reflect a small portion of the pump beam into the reference gas cell, while the rest entered the terahertz cavity.

Schematic of the experimental setupA gold-plated silicon wafer was used as a beam splitter to reflect a small portion of the pump beam into the reference gas cell, while the rest entered the terahertz cavity.Capasso Lab/Harvard SEAS

Everitt’s research interest in optically pumped terahertz lasers spans almost 40 years, and back in the 1980s, he worked on making compact molecular lasers. “But we still had this big CO2 laser that we had to pump it with, so it wasn’t portable. But now that we’ve replaced the CO2 laser with the QCL, both pieces are small…. You could put the whole thing in a shoe box.”

This portability is also a game changer, especially given that terahertz frequencies are highly sought after for their numerous potential applications. “I guarantee you that when the terahertz technology matures, there will be a lot of interest in exploiting it,” Everitt says. Applications include high-bandwidth communications and high-resolution radar. “The higher the carrier frequency, the more bandwidth you can put on it…. [With] high-resolution radar…you can get very precise centimeter-scale or even finer resolution.”

There are possibilities of remote-sensing applications as well, Everitt says: “Molecules have very distinctive signatures in the terahertz region that allow you to discriminate species, toxins, chemical agents, things that might be a threat or just simply to monitor what’s going on in a chemical plant.”

There are potential applications beyond Earth as well, such as for radio astronomers. “I think the sky’s the limit,” Everitt says. “The point behind our [research] is to show the universality of this concept, and that almost any molecule that can exist in the gas phase and has a permanent electric dipole moment can be made to lase.”

To turn this proof of concept into a user-friendly technology or device that “doesn’t require a Ph.D. scientist from Harvard to operate,” as Everitt puts it, partners from the industry will have to step in. “The next steps for us are about engineering this into a turnkey system where you just type in the frequency you want and out comes the radiation that you’ve asked for…and the system automatically knows how to tune and optimize performance.”

Back in the lab, there are still a few things that need ironing out. Terahertz radiation can be limited in range because of atmospheric water vapor absorption. But Everitt feels this is a feature, not a bug. For example, crosstalk or interference problems could be limited. “So if you want bubbles of communication, there are bubbles where your radar operates or bubbles where you’re doing remote sensing. Terahertz is actually very favorable, because the atmospheric attenuation prevents the radiation from just going on forever.”

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Europe Expands Virtual Borders To Thwart Migrants

Our investigation reveals that Europe is turning to remote sensing to detect seafaring migrants so African countries can pull them back

14 min read
A photo of a number of people sitting in a inflatable boat on the water with a patrol ship in the background.

Migrants in a dinghy accompanied by a Frontex vessel at the village of Skala Sikaminias, on the Greek island of Lesbos, after crossing the Aegean sea from Turkey, on 28 February 2020.


It was after midnight in the Maltese search-and-rescue zone of the Mediterranean when a rubber boat originating from Libya carrying dozens of migrants encountered a hulking cargo ship from Madeira and a European military aircraft. The ship’s captain stopped the engines, and the aircraft flashed its lights at the rubber boat. But neither the ship nor the aircraft came to the rescue. Instead, Maltese authorities told the ship’s captain to wait for vessels from Malta to pick up the migrants. By the time those boats arrived, three migrants had drowned trying to swim to the idle ship.

The private, Malta-based vessels picked up the survivors, steamed about 237 kilometers south, and handed over the migrants to authorities in Libya, which was and is in the midst of a civil war, rather than return to Malta, 160 km away. Five more migrants died on the southward journey. By delivering the migrants there, the masters of the Maltese vessels, and perhaps the European rescue authorities involved, may have violated the international law of the sea, which requires ship masters to return people they rescue to a safe port. Instead, migrants returned to Libya over the last decade have reported enslavement, physical abuse, extortion, and murders while they try to cross the Mediterranean.

If it were legal to deliver rescued migrants to Libya, it would be as cheap as sending rescue boats a few extra kilometers south instead of east. But over the last few years, Europe’s maritime military patrols have conducted fewer and fewer sea rescue operations, while adding crewed and uncrewed aerial patrols and investing in remote-sensing technology to create expanded virtual borders to stop migrants before they get near a physical border.

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