Superfast Camera Sees Shock Wave From Light

System captures Mach cone from laser pulse

3 min read
System captures Mach cone from laser pulse
Illustration: Jinyang Liang and Lihong V. Wang

A camera system that captures a snapshot of overlapping light waves in a tiny fraction of a second could lead to new methods for imaging, allowing scientists to watch the brain’s neurons interacting or see neutrinos colliding with matter.

The camera system took snapshots at a rate of 100 billion frames per second, fast enough to capture a pulse of laser light spreading out in a Mach cone, the optical equivalent of the sonic boom created by an airplane traveling faster than the speed of sound.

“You can think of the laser source as the supersonic jet and everything is dragged behind. Instead of generating a sound, we’re generating a scattered wavelet,” says Jinyang Liang, a postdoctoral research associate in Lihong Wang’s Optical Imaging Lab at Washington University, in St. Louis. The researchers and their collaborators from Tsinghua University in China and the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign describe their work in today’s issue of Science Advances.

An airplane creates a Mach cone when it passes Mach 1, the speed of sound. Because the source of the noise—the plane’s engines—is moving faster than sound itself, the sound waves get compressed and spread out in a cone shape behind the aircraft. The same thing can happen to light.

To generate their optical Mach cone, the researchers made two silicone display panels, which they laced with aluminum oxide powder to scatter the light toward the cameras. They placed the panels on opposite sides of an air-filled tunnel, then threw in a chunk of dry ice to create a fog meant to scatter light. The researchers then fired a laser beam through the tunnel. Because the silicone has a higher index of refraction than the air, light striking the panels moves more slowly than the light striking the fog, so the source of the light waves is “moving faster” than the waves in the silicone are, the same as with the supersonic jet.

Super fast camera captures light's glamour shotGif: Liang et al./Science Advances

To capture an image of the light waves, the team used three charge-coupled-device (CCD) cameras. One was a streak camera, which converts photons into electrons and lets them flow between two plates, where a voltage is quickly increasing. As the voltage increases it bends the path of the electrons, and this bend gets greater over time, so seeing where the electrons land in a streak across a detector tells you when they passed between the plates, allowing you to re-create the movement of a wave. This method has been in use for a while, but it provides only a narrow, one-dimensional view of a phenomenon. In this case the researchers opened the slit of the streak camera wider than normal to get a 2D view.

They also used a patterned filter to impress a series of what were essentially bar codes on the image. Just as a CT scanner uses slices of an X-ray to build up a 3D picture of an organ, these “bar codes” allowed a computer to divide the single snapshot into slices and rebuild them into a three-dimensional data cube that separated the slices in time and space, giving shape to what would otherwise have been just a smudge of light. The system also contained two external cameras that did not use the streak approach, to get different perspectives and increase the final resolution of the image.

Whereas existing imaging technologies allow scientists to see small clusters of neurons firing, or view a larger neural network but not the individual activity, this method may give them both a broad and detailed view simultaneously, Liang says.

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3D-Stacked CMOS Takes Moore’s Law to New Heights

When transistors can’t get any smaller, the only direction is up

10 min read
An image of stacked squares with yellow flat bars through them.
Emily Cooper
Green

Perhaps the most far-reaching technological achievement over the last 50 years has been the steady march toward ever smaller transistors, fitting them more tightly together, and reducing their power consumption. And yet, ever since the two of us started our careers at Intel more than 20 years ago, we’ve been hearing the alarms that the descent into the infinitesimal was about to end. Yet year after year, brilliant new innovations continue to propel the semiconductor industry further.

Along this journey, we engineers had to change the transistor’s architecture as we continued to scale down area and power consumption while boosting performance. The “planar” transistor designs that took us through the last half of the 20th century gave way to 3D fin-shaped devices by the first half of the 2010s. Now, these too have an end date in sight, with a new gate-all-around (GAA) structure rolling into production soon. But we have to look even further ahead because our ability to scale down even this new transistor architecture, which we call RibbonFET, has its limits.

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