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IEEE Spectrum Editorial Staff

Editor in chief

Susan Hassler,

Executive Editor 

Glenn Zorpette,

Editorial Director, Digital 

Harry Goldstein,

Managing Editor 

Elizabeth A. Bretz,

Senior Art Director

Mark Montgomery,

Senior Editors

Stephen Cass (Resources),
Erico Guizzo (Digital),
Jean Kumagai,
Samuel K. Moore,
Tekla S. Perry,
Philip E. Ross,
David Schneider,

Deputy Art Director

Brandon Palacio,

Photography director

Randi Klett,

Associate Art Director

Erik Vrielink,

Senior Associate Editor

Eliza Strickland,

News Manager

Amy Nordrum,

Associate Editors

Willie D. Jones (Digital),
Michael Koziol,

Senior Copy Editor

Joseph N. Levine

Copy Editor

Michele Kogon

Editorial Researcher

Alan Gardner

Administrative Assistant

Ramona L. Foster

Contributing Editors

Evan Ackerman, Mark Anderson, Robert N. Charette, Peter Fairley, Tam Harbert, Mark Harris, David Kushner, Robert W. Lucky, Prachi Patel, Morgen E. Peck,  Richard Stevenson, Lawrence Ulrich, Paul Wallich

Editor in Chief, The Institute

Kathy Pretz,

Assistant Editor, The Institute

Joanna Goodrich,

Director, Periodicals Production Services

Peter Tuohy

Editorial & Web Production Manager

Roy Carubia

Senior Electronic Layout specialist

Bonnie Nani

Product Manager, digital

Shannan Dunlap

Web Production Coordinator

Jacqueline L. Parker

Multimedia Production Specialist

Michael Spector


+1 732 562 6334


Felicia Spagnoli,


Nicole Evans Gyimah,

Editorial Advisory Board, IEEE Spectrum

Susan Hassler, Chair; Steve Blank, David C. Brock, Sudhir Dixit, Shahin Farshchi, Limor Fried, Robert Hebner, Jason K. Hui, Grant Jacoby, Leah Jamieson, Mary Lou Jepsen, Deepa Kundur, Norberto Lerendegui, Steve Mann, Allison Marsh, Sofie Olhede, Jacob Østergaard, Umit Ozguner, John Rogers, Jonathan Rothberg, Umar Saif, Takao Someya, Maurizio Vecchione, Yu Zheng, Kun Zhou, Edward Zyszkowski

Editorial Advisory Board, The Institute

Kathy Pretz, Chair; Qusi Alqarqaz, John Baillieul, Philip Chen, Michael B. Forster, Shashank Gaur, Susan Hassler, Hulya Kirkici, Cecilia Metra, San Murugesan, Mirela Sechi Annoni Notare, Joel Trussell, Hon K. Tsang, Chonggang Wang

Managing Director, Publications

Michael B. Forster


Mark David,

Editorial  Correspondence

IEEE Spectrum
3 Park Ave., 17th Floor
New York, NY 10016-5997

Editorial Department

Tel: +1 212 419 7555  Fax: +1 212 419 7570


Palo Alto, Calif.; Tekla S. Perry
+1 650 752 6661

Responsibility for the substance of articles

rests upon the authors, not IEEE, its organizational units, or its members. Articles do not represent official positions of IEEE. Reader comments will be posted online, or published in print as space allows, and may be excerpted for publication. The publisher reserves the right to reject any advertising.

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IEEE Spectrum is a registered trademark owned by The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc. Careers, EEs’ Tools & Toys, EV Watch, Progress, Reflections, Spectral Lines, and Technically Speaking are trademarks of IEEE.

Advertising Inquiries

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Toll-free: +1 800 369-6220 x 3443

Media Director

Erik Henson,


+1 212 221 9595, ext. 319

Reprint Permission / Libraries

Articles may be photocopied for private use of patrons. A per-copy fee must be paid to the Copyright Clearance Center, 29 Congress St., Salem, MA 01970. For other copying or republication, contact Business Manager, IEEE Spectrum.