The February 2024 issue of IEEE Spectrum is here!

Close bar

Remote Control

3 min read

What is the most ubiquitous, mundane piece of electronic equipment in the home? I think it is the infrared remote control, or "clicker." There are eight of them sitting on top of my living room television. I don't even know what some of them control. Probably they worked with things that were discarded years ago, but I'm afraid to throw any of them away. I calculate that in 117 years my house will be completely filled with remote controls for long-gone equipment.

In spite of being a primary source of control in the home, remotes are taken for granted--until, of course, one disappears. Like odd socks in the washer or umbrellas in the closet, these things have a way of slipping into the fourth dimension, causing everyone to go on the dreaded hunt for the lost clicker. Remotes have evolved the ability to burrow under cushions and conceal themselves, surviving unfound for years. Those without this ability did not survive, eventually being crushed or knocked underfoot accidentally.

Older engineers can remember the dark years in the past when you had to walk to the television to change channels. I don't know who invented the remote control, but the event changed the world. It was one of those inventions like intermittent windshield wipers or one-way tolls that make you say to yourself: "What took them so long to think of that?"

I hadn't given remote controls much thought--that is, until recently. I was browsing an electronics store when I saw a red-tagged HDTV tuner on sale for a small fraction of its retail price. I inquired and was told that no one wanted to buy it because the store had lost the box and all the accompanying parts, including the instructions, the connecting and power cords, and the remote control. But I figured, "I'm an engineer, I can overcome these small obstacles. Hey, I can even walk to the tuner to change channels if necessary."

The cords were no problem, and I was able to find the instruction manual on the Internet, but the remote was quite another matter. As I soon discovered, the existence of the remote wasn't just a question of convenience--this tuner could not be used without it. I was beginning to see that this would be a challenge.

The manufacturer of my tuner would not sell a replacement remote. I found a number of companies on the Internet that sold replacement remotes, but none listed one for my tuner. Then there were a slew of "universal" remotes, none of which seemed to have a mode that would control my tuner. I stared at my useless purchase. Behind its brushed aluminum exterior it remained obstinately mute, waiting for an infrared language that I didn't know how to speak.

This was really frustrating. After all, what is inside a remote? Not much: it has a processor, memory, input/output circuits, and communication. I know that I could design one of these things, but hacking one to match an unknown receiver with unknown commands seemed impossible.

This is where the Internet is great. With only a little research I discovered an underworld of people who apparently get their kicks by hacking remotes. There are a number of remote controls made by one manufacturer--but sold under different brand names--that have a secret interface that can be used to reprogram the device. These remotes have a six-wire interface in the battery compartment, apparently intended for use by the manufacturer, which can be connected to a computer by a special cable. Hackers have discovered this interface and have written about a gigabyte of free software for reprogramming these remotes. One Internet discussion group archives these programs, as well as the customized codes for just about any existing piece of electronic equipment.

Reading through the group archive, I developed a new appreciation for these humble remote controls. I suppose they evolved before standardization became prevalent, but there are numerous different communication protocols in use, as well as hundreds or thousands of different code sets. For a small device that costs almost nothing and has almost nothing inside, these things are inordinately complicated.

So in the end I was able to reprogram a remote and talk to my new tuner. Whether or not the tuner itself proves useful is beside the point. I take pride in my little achievement that no one but another engineer can appreciate. But I'm an engineer, and I'm supposed to be able to do things like that.

About the Author

ROBERT W. LUCKY (IEEE Fellow), now retired, was vice president for applied research at Telcordia Technology in Red Bank, N.J. ( ).

This article is for IEEE members only. Join IEEE to access our full archive.

Join the world’s largest professional organization devoted to engineering and applied sciences and get access to all of Spectrum’s articles, podcasts, and special reports. Learn more →

If you're already an IEEE member, please sign in to continue reading.

Membership includes:

  • Get unlimited access to IEEE Spectrum content
  • Follow your favorite topics to create a personalized feed of IEEE Spectrum content
  • Save Spectrum articles to read later
  • Network with other technology professionals
  • Establish a professional profile
  • Create a group to share and collaborate on projects
  • Discover IEEE events and activities
  • Join and participate in discussions