The December 2022 issue of IEEE Spectrum is here!

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Power Tool for Making Nanoscale Objects

University of Pennsylvania team uses electron microscope to fashion tiny structures

3 min read

It’s a big deal in the realm of the very small.

Scientists at the University of Pennsylvania, in Philadelphia, have invented a microscopy technique to carve tiny gold, silver, and aluminum structures a few nanometers across. Using a special electron microscope, assistant professor of physics Marija DrndiÄ' and her graduate student Michael D. Fischbein have made minuscule structures less than 10 nanometers across.

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The Transistor at 75

The past, present, and future of the modern world’s most important invention

2 min read
A photo of a birthday cake with 75 written on it.
Lisa Sheehan

Seventy-five years is a long time. It’s so long that most of us don’t remember a time before the transistor, and long enough for many engineers to have devoted entire careers to its use and development. In honor of this most important of technological achievements, this issue’s package of articles explores the transistor’s historical journey and potential future.

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