The December 2022 issue of IEEE Spectrum is here!

Close bar

Not Quite Material by Design, But Nanosheets Remind Us of Its Potential

Engineering a material to serve specific functions hints at possibility of designing materials to do the same

2 min read
Not Quite Material by Design, But Nanosheets Remind Us of Its Potential

A few years back, I noted that the concept of materials by design had fallen out of the lexicon of nanotechnology proponents and suggested that this was due, at least in part, to how difficult it would be to achieve.

I received some pointed criticism for my view, which was characterized as being so conservative as to be radical.

When I saw recent news that researcher Ronald Zuckermann and his colleagues at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory had manufactured a large sheet, just two molecules thick, made of a polymer that mimics the precise structures seen in proteins and crystal structures, this “material by design” debate occurred to me once again.

I was struck by a quote that Zuckerman provides in the Wired article cited above in which he states, “It was a real thrill to figure out how to really order material in a precise way at the atomic level.” Then the articles author adds: “His team knows exactly where each atom is located in the structure, so it’s possible to chemically engineer the material to serve specific functions.”

While this possibility hints at the potential of material by design, earlier in the article the more accurate description of how this material came to be designed indicates that it followed a far more an iterative process than a deliberate one: “Zuckermann’s team made the discovery by stumbling upon a particular sequence of repeating units that formed perfectly aligned two-dimensional crystals.” (Emphasis added).

This question of material by design aside, the perfectly aligned two-dimensional crystals made into such a large structure is a remarkable achievement. It has been described as the “plywood” for building the electronic devices of the future.

Suggested applications are numerous ranging from tissue engineering and drug delivery to batteries and fuel cells. Clearly applications in which flat electrical components are needed such as in photovoltaics are a likely area for initial applied research.

The Conversation (0)

The Transistor at 75

The past, present, and future of the modern world’s most important invention

2 min read
A photo of a birthday cake with 75 written on it.
Lisa Sheehan
LightGreen

Seventy-five years is a long time. It’s so long that most of us don’t remember a time before the transistor, and long enough for many engineers to have devoted entire careers to its use and development. In honor of this most important of technological achievements, this issue’s package of articles explores the transistor’s historical journey and potential future.

Keep Reading ↓Show less