This Laser Scans Skies for Air Pollution and Greenhouse Gases

NIST device tracks methane, carbon dioxide and ozone

3 min read
Illustration of a NIST laser frequency-comb instrument over a photo of a NIST building in Boulder, Colorado.
NIST researchers used a laser frequency-comb instrument (illustration at lower right) to simultaneously measure three airborne greenhouse gases—nitrous oxide, carbon dioxide and water vapor—plus ozone and carbon monoxide over two round-trip paths (arrows) from a NIST building in Boulder, Colorado, to a reflector on a balcony of another building, and another reflector on a nearby hill.

In a world gravely threatened by greenhouse gas emissions, actually measuring those greenhouse gases can be surprisingly tricky. You might need to grab a sample of the air or force it through an analyzer. And many of these techniques can only measure one greenhouse gas or one pollutant at a time.

Lasers, however, provide another way. While laser spectroscopic technology that tracks individual compounds have been around for decades, researchers at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) have developed a system that can measure four greenhouse gases at once: methane, carbon dioxide, water vapor, and nitrous oxide.

“It’s a nice, robust, sort of no-moving-parts package, but you still get really high spectral resolution,” says Kevin Cossel, a researcher at NIST who was part of the project.

The technology behind this package is called an optical frequency comb, a development that helped win the 2005 Nobel Prize in Physics. It’s essentially a tool that fires lasers at specific, evenly spaced, frequencies. As depicted on a spectral chart, those frequencies look like a comb, hence the name.

You can take advantage of the fact that frequency combs are very, very precise. In particular, scanning technology based on frequency combs relies on a dual-comb setup: using two combs with different frequencies and watching their interference patterns. It doesn’t have any complex gratings or moving parts.

NIST have been using combs for this purpose for several years now. Initially, the NIST researchers tuned their laser combs to wavelengths in the near-infrared, around 1.6 μm. That allowed the researchers to look at gases like methane, water vapor, and, of course, carbon dioxide.

This system also has another key characteristic: it’s open-pathed. Because the combs are tuned to frequencies that are less absorbed by features of the atmosphere, their lasers can go on for a distancea kilometer, say—and see everything in between. Rather than looking at emissions from a single point, you can set up a grid to look at emissions over a designated area.

It also means that you can compare those measurements to larger-scale atmospheric models of gas emissions. “If you’re measuring over this open path, you’re already matching the grid size of the models,” says Cossel. “So the models might look at dispersion and air quality with grid sizes of hundreds of meters or a kilometer, for the really high-resolution ones. So you’re kind of matching that.”

One of the system’s initial focuses was on measuring methane, which has more potential to cause warming than carbon dioxide. Humans release methane from burning fossil fuels (especially oil and natural gas) and from industrial-scale agriculture (notoriously, burps and flatulence of ruminants like cows and sheep).

So the NIST group took their technology into the field—literally, to gauge the emissions from a field full of cows. It’s now widely used for that purpose. It’s also used to detect gas leaks.

But methane is only one piece of the greenhouse gas puzzle. The NIST researchers thought that, if they could lengthen their combs’ wavelengths—deeper into the infrared realms, closer 5 μm, which also allows for open paths—they could detect a few other gases. They’ve successfully tested the device and published their results in the journal Laser & Photonics Reviews in June.

So, in addition to carbon dioxide, methane, and water vapor, NIST’s system can now measure nitrous oxide. And on top of those four key greenhouse gases, the comb can also be used to measure ozone and carbon monoxide, both common air pollutants that are especially prevalent where there are loads of cars.

“We’re working right now on making it a much more compact system,” Cossel says.

He hopes that, now that the technology’s been demonstrated to work, it can therefore be used to study things like urban air quality and the impacts of wildfires. He also wants to use it to study nitrous oxide emissions from traffic and from agriculture, which he says aren’t well-understood.

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This Dutch City Is Road-Testing Vehicle-to-Grid Tech

Utrecht leads the world in using EVs for grid storage

10 min read
This photograph shows a car with the words “We Drive Solar” on the door, connected to a charging station. A windmill can be seen in the background.

The Dutch city of Utrecht is embracing vehicle-to-grid technology, an example of which is shown here—an EV connected to a bidirectional charger. The historic Rijn en Zon windmill provides a fitting background for this scene.

We Drive Solar

Hundreds of charging stations for electric vehicles dot Utrecht’s urban landscape in the Netherlands like little electric mushrooms. Unlike those you may have grown accustomed to seeing, many of these stations don’t just charge electric cars—they can also send power from vehicle batteries to the local utility grid for use by homes and businesses.

Debates over the feasibility and value of such vehicle-to-grid technology go back decades. Those arguments are not yet settled. But big automakers like Volkswagen, Nissan, and Hyundai have moved to produce the kinds of cars that can use such bidirectional chargers—alongside similar vehicle-to-home technology, whereby your car can power your house, say, during a blackout, as promoted by Ford with its new F-150 Lightning. Given the rapid uptake of electric vehicles, many people are thinking hard about how to make the best use of all that rolling battery power.

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