The December 2022 issue of IEEE Spectrum is here!

Close bar

A Nanoscale Peek at Lithium-air Batteries Promises Better Electric Vehicles

Ten times better charging capacity of Lithium-air batteries over the Li-ion variety just got a little closer

3 min read
A Nanoscale Peek at Lithium-air Batteries Promises Better Electric Vehicles

Researchers at MIT and Sandia National Laboratory have made some long-awaited progress in lithium-air batteries. The research has provided insight into the electrochemical reactions that occur when they are being charged.

Lithium-air batteries promise five to 10 times greater storage capacity than traditional lithium-ion batteries, leading many to believe that they may hold the key to turning electrical vehicles from a niche market to a much larger segment of the automotive industry.

There’s no question that electric vehicles continue to grab headlines, like the Tesla Model S,  which recently won Consumer Reports' highest rating yet for an automobile. I suppose the Consumer Reports editors must not be bothered by its 425 kilomter range or the hours-long refueling.

To bring EVs more in line with what people expect from their fossil-fuel-powered cars—namely, a 650-kilometer driving range and a about 2 minutes to fill it up again for the next 650 kilometers—there will need to be some significant improvements to the batteries that power these all-electric vehicles.

While there have been improvements to the lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries that are now used to power EVs, it’s long been rumored that technologically speaking we may have been barking up the wrong tree with Li-ion batteries.

To get to the point where batteries have the energy density to compete head-to-head on performance with fossil fuels they will need to reach around 10 00 Wh/kg. If you improved Li-ion batteries to twice their capabilities of where they are today, they would still only reach 400 Wh/kg. As former Secretary of Energy Stephen Chu outlined, battery technology will need to have six to seven times higher storage capacity than today’s batteries to be competitive with the internal combustion engine.

This is where lithium-air batteries step in with their ability to offer up to ten times the storage capacity of the Li-ion battery. However, to date these batteries have significant challenges for use in anything outside of highly-controlled laboratory environments.

The MIT and Sandia National Lab researchers, in work that was published the ACS journal Nano Letters (“In Situ Transmission Electron Microscopy Observations of Electrochemical Oxidation of Li2O2), used transmission electron microscope (TEM) to peer into one of the trouble spots in the further development of these batteries: the reaction known as oxygen evolution.

It was in this reaction that the researchers observed for the first time the oxidation of lithium peroxide, which is the byproduct material created during the discharge of a lithium-air battery. The observations revealed that the lithium peroxide forms primarily at the interface of the substrate, which is made of multiwalled carbon nanotubes.

In this location, the lithium peroxide acts as resistance to the flow of electrons and handicaps the charging of batteries. However, the researchers also discovered that during charging, when the electrons are passing through the carbon nanotubes, the lithium peroxide particles that had formed during discharge began to shrink. This means that if electron transport for these batteries can be improved these batteries could be made to charge much more quickly than previously had been thought.

"This work has identified the key limiting condition, electron transport … providing a critical contribution,” says Jie Xiao, a researcher at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. This is a great example of how fundamental research can significantly improve our understanding to resolve challenges in practical devices. The information provided in this paper will benefit the rational design of the air electrode of lithium-air batteries.

While this research still doesn’t show a clear path for these batteries out of their current laboratory use, it may make better sense to pursue a battery technology for electric vehicles that has at least the promise of making them performance competitive with fossil-fuel-powered automobiles.

Photo: Creative Commons

The Conversation (0)

Chinese Joint Venture Will Begin Mass-Producing an Autonomous Electric Car

With the Robo-01, Baidu and Chinese carmaker Geely aim for a fully self-driving car

4 min read
A black car sits against a white backdrop decorated with Chinese writing. The car’s doors are open, like a butterfly’s wings. Two charging stations are on the car’s left; two men stand on the right.

The Robo-01 autonomous electric car shows off its butterfly doors at a reveal to the media in Beijing, in June 2022.

Tingshu Wang/Reuters/Alamy

In October, a startup called Jidu Automotive, backed by Chinese AI giant Baidu and Chinese carmaker Geely, officially released an autonomous electric car, the Robo-01 Lunar Edition. In 2023, the car will go on sale.

At roughly US $55,000, the Robo-01 Lunar Edition is a limited edition, cobranded with China’s Lunar Exploration Project. It has two lidars, a 5-millimeter-range radar, 12 ultrasonic sensors, and 12 high-definition cameras. It is the first vehicle to offer on-board, AI-assisted voice recognition, with voice response speeds within 700 milliseconds, thanks to the Qualcomm Snapdragon 8295 chip.

Keep Reading ↓Show less