The December 2022 issue of IEEE Spectrum is here!

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These sunflowers, which took first place in the 2008 Materials Research Society's Science as Art competition, are actually bundles of silicon oxide nanowires. The flowers' centers are tightly packed clusters, while the petals are looser clusters. Researchers from the Chinese University of Hong Kong added color to the image with graphic software.

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The Transistor at 75

The past, present, and future of the modern world’s most important invention

2 min read
A photo of a birthday cake with 75 written on it.
Lisa Sheehan
LightGreen

Seventy-five years is a long time. It’s so long that most of us don’t remember a time before the transistor, and long enough for many engineers to have devoted entire careers to its use and development. In honor of this most important of technological achievements, this issue’s package of articles explores the transistor’s historical journey and potential future.

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