The December 2022 issue of IEEE Spectrum is here!

Close bar

Microsoft Buys Into DNA Data Storage

10 million strands of synthetic DNA will encode mystery data in test

3 min read
Microsoft Buys Into DNA Data Storage
Illustration: Maciej Frolow/Getty

Bodies are fragile and prone to the eventual failure known as death. But the DNA that encodes all the instructions for creating and operating those perishable bodies? That stuff sticks around. Thanks to 7000-year-old DNA from a tooth found in a Spanish cave, for example, we know that the “caveman” who died there had blue eyes and was probably lactose intolerant. 

Now Microsoft is making an investment in DNA data storage, a cutting-edge technique that takes advantage of genetic material’s durability and efficiency. The company has taken a chunk of data that would normally be stored in a file on a hard drive, and has translated it into the genetic code of As, Cs, Gs, and Ts that represent the chemical building blocks of DNA. Then it asked synthetic biology startup Twist Bioscience to manufacture 10 million DNA strands with those sequences of letters. 

A single gram of DNA can store almost a zettabyte of digital data

“They give us the DNA sequence, we make the DNA from scratch,” Twist CEO Emily Leproust says in a phone interview. Once the data has been transformed into invisible molecules at the bottom of a test tube, Twist will send it back to Microsoft for testing. The company can experiment with using the DNA for long-term data storage (there are ways to simulate the passing of millennia) and reading the data back out from those test tubes. 

Interestingly, Twist doesn’t know what data it’s encoding. “We don’t have the decoder key, so I have no idea what it is,” says Leproust. Microsoft hasn’t divulged that information either.

Twist, a San Francisco-based biotech startup, uses machines of its own devising to mass-produce DNA. Its primary customers are researchers creating novel bits of DNA to stick into microbes. The DNA gives the microbes useful new properties such as, say, the natural ability to produce an industrial chemical typically manufactured from petroleum. But synthesizing DNA for data storage would open up an entirely new market. 

The idea of storing data in DNA has intrigued researchers for decades, and got a serious push forward in 2012 when Harvard geneticist George Church encoded an entire book in DNA. As a storage medium, genetic material is not only durable, but also incredibly compact: A single gram of DNA can store almost a zettabyte (one trillion gigabytes) of digital data. 

As our Information Age society generates ever-increasing amounts of data, researchers are worrying about where to put it, and how long it can be stored using existing technologies. DNA is one idea in the running for stashing away data that doesn’t need to be accessed often. Its read-out mechanism is DNA sequencing, which has become cheap and easy in the past two decades (the price of sequencing an entire human genome has dropped from about $1 billion in the year 2001 to about $1000 today). 

Researchers are still looking into the error rate of coding and decoding information into DNA, and costs still have to come down quite a bit before it will be considered a real alternative to existing technologies. How much? “We have to lower the cost by about 10,000 times from where it is today,” says Leproust. But that’s no deal-breaker, she says; costs in electronics have dropped by millions of times. 

As for Microsoft, the company seems willing to give it a go. “The initial test phase with Twist demonstrated that we could encode and recover 100 percent of the digital data from synthetic DNA,” says Doug Carmean of Microsoft Research in a press release. “We’re still years away from a commercially viable product, but our early tests with Twist demonstrate that in the future we’ll be able to substantially increase the density and durability of data storage.”

The Conversation (0)

Are You Ready for Workplace Brain Scanning?

Extracting and using brain data will make workers happier and more productive, backers say

11 min read
Vertical
A photo collage showing a man wearing a eeg headset while looking at a computer screen.
Nadia Radic
DarkGray

Get ready: Neurotechnology is coming to the workplace. Neural sensors are now reliable and affordable enough to support commercial pilot projects that extract productivity-enhancing data from workers’ brains. These projects aren’t confined to specialized workplaces; they’re also happening in offices, factories, farms, and airports. The companies and people behind these neurotech devices are certain that they will improve our lives. But there are serious questions about whether work should be organized around certain functions of the brain, rather than the person as a whole.

To be clear, the kind of neurotech that’s currently available is nowhere close to reading minds. Sensors detect electrical activity across different areas of the brain, and the patterns in that activity can be broadly correlated with different feelings or physiological responses, such as stress, focus, or a reaction to external stimuli. These data can be exploited to make workers more efficient—and, proponents of the technology say, to make them happier. Two of the most interesting innovators in this field are the Israel-based startup InnerEye, which aims to give workers superhuman abilities, and Emotiv, a Silicon Valley neurotech company that’s bringing a brain-tracking wearable to office workers, including those working remotely.

Keep Reading ↓Show less
{"imageShortcodeIds":[]}