The imminent demise of flash memory at the hands of some new technological upstart has been predicted at least for the last decade.  The latest pretender to the throne is the so-called memristor (also called resistive RAM, ReRAM, or RRAM).  Of course, if you don’t like the term “memristor”, you can alternatively refer to it as “two-terminal non-volatile memory devices based on resistance switching.”

Now researchers at ETH Zurich have designed a memristor device out of perovskite just 5 nanometres thick that has three stable resistive states, which means it can encode data as 0,1 and 2, or a “trit” as opposed to a “bit.”

The research, which was published in the journal ACS Nano, developed model devices that have two competing nonvolatile resistive switching processes. These switching processes can be alternatively triggered by the effective switching voltage and time applied to the device.

"Our component could therefore also be useful for a new type of IT (Information Technology) that is not based on binary logic, but on a logic that provides for information located 'between' the 0 and 1," said Jennifer Rupp, professor in the Department of Materials at ETH Zurich, in a press release. "This has interesting implications for what is referred to as fuzzy logic, which seeks to incorporate a form of uncertainty into the processing of digital information. You could describe it as less rigid computing."

The researchers also believe this capability could make these devices applicable to so-called neuromorphic computing.  Earlier this year, researchers at Northwestern University used the two-dimensional material molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) to create the third terminal for the memristor to simulate the neurons of the human brain.

While artificial intelligence is an attractive offshoot of this research, the main achievement has been to identify the carriers of electrical charge and understand their relationship with the three stable states.

Rupp added: "This is extremely important knowledge for materials science which will be useful in refining the way the storage operates and in improving its efficiency."

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3D-Stacked CMOS Takes Moore’s Law to New Heights

When transistors can’t get any smaller, the only direction is up

10 min read
An image of stacked squares with yellow flat bars through them.
Emily Cooper
Green

Perhaps the most far-reaching technological achievement over the last 50 years has been the steady march toward ever smaller transistors, fitting them more tightly together, and reducing their power consumption. And yet, ever since the two of us started our careers at Intel more than 20 years ago, we’ve been hearing the alarms that the descent into the infinitesimal was about to end. Yet year after year, brilliant new innovations continue to propel the semiconductor industry further.

Along this journey, we engineers had to change the transistor’s architecture as we continued to scale down area and power consumption while boosting performance. The “planar” transistor designs that took us through the last half of the 20th century gave way to 3D fin-shaped devices by the first half of the 2010s. Now, these too have an end date in sight, with a new gate-all-around (GAA) structure rolling into production soon. But we have to look even further ahead because our ability to scale down even this new transistor architecture, which we call RibbonFET, has its limits.

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