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The loss (or lack) of Internet access has been felt keenly in previous disasters, but Keynote Systems says the Internet survived the earthquake and tsunami in Japan well. (Certainly, it's done better than Japan's nuclear power plants.) In a statement, the monitoring firm said it had examined the performance of the Internet in Japan late Friday afternoon, and found very few large-scale problems. However, some leading Japanese sites struggled to stay up and available. According to Dave Karow, Keynote's senior product manager for Internet testing and monitoring: “At a macro level, the Internet did what it’s supposed to do. It didn’t even blink.”

Access between Tokyo and San Francisco and between Tokyo and regional hubs such as Seoul, Singapore, and Taipei was unaffected, according to Keynote.

However, a number of popular Japanese-hosted sites experienced mostly short-lived slowdowns, says Karow. “Interestingly, these performance alarms were spread out throughout the day rather than clustering around the time of the earthquake,” he says. There were a small number of complete outages lasting more than seven hours.

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Metamaterials Could Solve One of 6G’s Big Problems

There’s plenty of bandwidth available if we use reconfigurable intelligent surfaces

12 min read
An illustration depicting cellphone users at street level in a city, with wireless signals reaching them via reflecting surfaces.

Ground level in a typical urban canyon, shielded by tall buildings, will be inaccessible to some 6G frequencies. Deft placement of reconfigurable intelligent surfaces [yellow] will enable the signals to pervade these areas.

Chris Philpot

For all the tumultuous revolution in wireless technology over the past several decades, there have been a couple of constants. One is the overcrowding of radio bands, and the other is the move to escape that congestion by exploiting higher and higher frequencies. And today, as engineers roll out 5G and plan for 6G wireless, they find themselves at a crossroads: After years of designing superefficient transmitters and receivers, and of compensating for the signal losses at the end points of a radio channel, they’re beginning to realize that they are approaching the practical limits of transmitter and receiver efficiency. From now on, to get high performance as we go to higher frequencies, we will need to engineer the wireless channel itself. But how can we possibly engineer and control a wireless environment, which is determined by a host of factors, many of them random and therefore unpredictable?

Perhaps the most promising solution, right now, is to use reconfigurable intelligent surfaces. These are planar structures typically ranging in size from about 100 square centimeters to about 5 square meters or more, depending on the frequency and other factors. These surfaces use advanced substances called metamaterials to reflect and refract electromagnetic waves. Thin two-dimensional metamaterials, known as metasurfaces, can be designed to sense the local electromagnetic environment and tune the wave’s key properties, such as its amplitude, phase, and polarization, as the wave is reflected or refracted by the surface. So as the waves fall on such a surface, it can alter the incident waves’ direction so as to strengthen the channel. In fact, these metasurfaces can be programmed to make these changes dynamically, reconfiguring the signal in real time in response to changes in the wireless channel. Think of reconfigurable intelligent surfaces as the next evolution of the repeater concept.

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