The December 2022 issue of IEEE Spectrum is here!

Close bar

IBM Unveils Its Latest Big Iron

Big Blue's latest chip clocks in at a searing 5.5 GHz

2 min read
IBM Unveils Its Latest Big Iron

At last week’s Hot Chips, it was beginning to seem like we wouldn’t see too much in the way of raw speed. Hot Chips is one of the key conferences for chip designers, but hot's no longer in fashion, or even really feasible. Nowadays, as transistors have gotten leakier and mobile computing's become big business, the focus is on energy efficiency: How to get the most bang for your watt (or, fraction thereof).

So I do have to hand it to IBM for carrying the torch. In the last talk of the conference on Wednesday, senior technical staff member Chung-Lung (Kevin) Shum revealed some specifics on the “hearts and guts” of Big Blue’s new zNEXT mainframe processor, which will ship with a speed rating of 5.5 GHz. According to the company’s press release, that makes the processor either the “world’s fastest chip” or, more cryptically, the “world’s fastest chip running at 5.5 GHz” (there seems to be a missing comma, or this is a very limited boast).

The basic stats: the chip measures less than a square inch and was made with a 32nm chip manufacturing process  giving the processor denser features than its 2010 predecessor, the 5.2 GHz z196, which was made using a 45nm process). The new processor boasts 6 cores to z196’s four and winds some 7.68 miles of wire through 15 metal layers. Shum says the chip was designed under the “same power constraints as prior years,” suggesting the company has increased the clock rate without drawing significantly more power. 

Getting that speed boost involved more than just shrinking transistors. Shum listed extensive changes to the microarchitecture (so many, that afterward the session chair commented that Shum covered pretty much everything you might read in a textbook on the subject). Like the BlueGene/Q supercomputer chip IBM unveiled last year, this new mainframe chip implements transactional memory, which helps reduce locks on memory that can slow down computation. Some changes Shum outlined were fairly basic, such as reducing, for example, the physical separation of caches to cut down on latency.

As The Register noted, these mainframes are still a very profitable venture for IBM: pour $1 billion into chip development; get $7 billion back in sales. But given “Big Iron’s” small role at a conference dedicated to fast chips, you have to wonder how long the effort will continue. Some analysts say the traditional mainframe’s days are numbered (no, really, this time!) as it competes with systems based on cheaper chips.

(Image: IBM)

The Conversation (0)

Why Functional Programming Should Be the Future of Software Development

It’s hard to learn, but your code will produce fewer nasty surprises

11 min read
A plate of spaghetti made from code
Shira Inbar

You’d expectthe longest and most costly phase in the lifecycle of a software product to be the initial development of the system, when all those great features are first imagined and then created. In fact, the hardest part comes later, during the maintenance phase. That’s when programmers pay the price for the shortcuts they took during development.

So why did they take shortcuts? Maybe they didn’t realize that they were cutting any corners. Only when their code was deployed and exercised by a lot of users did its hidden flaws come to light. And maybe the developers were rushed. Time-to-market pressures would almost guarantee that their software will contain more bugs than it would otherwise.

Keep Reading ↓Show less