The July 2022 issue of IEEE Spectrum is here!

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How Computer Chess Changed Programming

It changed how we program and think about the human brain

1 min read

When Deep Blue beat Garry Kasparov in 1997, it was a shock to most—but not to those who had closely watched the development of chess computers over the previous 50 years. IEEE Spectrum talked to one of Deep Blue’s creators, Feng-Hsiung Hsu, and AI specialist and computer-chess historian Monty Newborn about the special place of chess computers in the history of computer programming and their role in our understanding of the human brain.

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The Future of Deep Learning Is Photonic

Computing with light could slash the energy needs of neural networks

10 min read
Image of a computer rendering.

This computer rendering depicts the pattern on a photonic chip that the author and his colleagues have devised for performing neural-network calculations using light.

Alexander Sludds
DarkBlue1

Think of the many tasks to which computers are being applied that in the not-so-distant past required human intuition. Computers routinely identify objects in images, transcribe speech, translate between languages, diagnose medical conditions, play complex games, and drive cars.

The technique that has empowered these stunning developments is called deep learning, a term that refers to mathematical models known as artificial neural networks. Deep learning is a subfield of machine learning, a branch of computer science based on fitting complex models to data.

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