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Germany's DRAM Bailout

The state of Saxony's risky rescue of European DRAM maker Qimonda

3 min read

7 January 2009—With government subsidies helping to create its wealth of high-tech jobs, Dresden has long been considered a luminous example of what can result from good industrial policy. That reputation is now being challenged as political and business leaders in Germany ponder the wisdom of throwing millions of taxpayer euros at the volatile memory-chip market.

With the help of more than 1.5 billion (US $2.1 billion) in state and federal subsidies over the past two decades, Dresden—the capital of the eastern German state of Saxony—has attracted more than 1200 high-tech companies to settle in and around the city, and it has created more than 44 000 jobs, largely in the semiconductor sector. That’s around 70 percent of all the people employed in Germany’s semiconductor industry.

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The Transistor at 75

The past, present, and future of the modern world’s most important invention

2 min read
A photo of a birthday cake with 75 written on it.
Lisa Sheehan

Seventy-five years is a long time. It’s so long that most of us don’t remember a time before the transistor, and long enough for many engineers to have devoted entire careers to its use and development. In honor of this most important of technological achievements, this issue’s package of articles explores the transistor’s historical journey and potential future.

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