Traffic is the expression of human purpose.
--Tom Vanderbilt, Traffic

On residential streets, engineers attempt to control car speeds by installing traffic-calming devices . You probably know all about the venerable speed bump , but these days you’re more likely to drive over the lower and wider speed hump or the even wider speed table . Many people refer to these generally as sleeping policemen , a richly evocative, perhaps even poetic locution.

In 1861, when the few steam-powered automobiles around were known as road locomotives (or light locomotives), the British Parliament established the world’s first speed limit of 10 miles per hour (16 kilometers per hour). In 1865 a revised law slashed it to 4 mph in the country and 2 mph in towns and villages. Apparently alarmed by even these modest speeds, Parliament also decreed the world’s first traffic-­calming devices: each vehicle had to be preceded by a person walking 60 yards (about 55 meters) ahead and waving a red flag to warn others of the vehicle’s approach.

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Why Functional Programming Should Be the Future of Software Development

It’s hard to learn, but your code will produce fewer nasty surprises

11 min read
A plate of spaghetti made from code
Shira Inbar

You’d expectthe longest and most costly phase in the lifecycle of a software product to be the initial development of the system, when all those great features are first imagined and then created. In fact, the hardest part comes later, during the maintenance phase. That’s when programmers pay the price for the shortcuts they took during development.

So why did they take shortcuts? Maybe they didn’t realize that they were cutting any corners. Only when their code was deployed and exercised by a lot of users did its hidden flaws come to light. And maybe the developers were rushed. Time-to-market pressures would almost guarantee that their software will contain more bugs than it would otherwise.

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