The December 2022 issue of IEEE Spectrum is here!

Close bar

Electronic Voting Eases India Elections

Hundreds of millions of votes will be tallied in a matter of hours

4 min read

10 May 2004--In the world's largest democracy new electronic voting machines (EVMs) have traveled in jeeps, in helicopters, and even on the backs of camels and elephants. More than a million have been mobilized for an estimated 670 million eligible voters who will choose a new national parliament in a staggered election, spread over three weeks, which ended today. On 13 May the machines will perform what previous generations might have thought impossible. They will produce the results of the largest democratic election in the world within a few hours.

"By and large, the machines have been very well received," says Ajay N. Jha, deputy election commissioner at the Election Commission of India. The federal agency has used EVMs in several state elections over the last five years. But demand for machines rose sharply this year when India's coalition government called the national election six months early to capitalize on political gains in some states and on a resurgent economy.

Keep Reading ↓Show less

This article is for IEEE members only. Join IEEE to access our full archive.

Join the world’s largest professional organization devoted to engineering and applied sciences and get access to all of Spectrum’s articles, podcasts, and special reports. Learn more →

If you're already an IEEE member, please sign in to continue reading.

Membership includes:

  • Get unlimited access to IEEE Spectrum content
  • Follow your favorite topics to create a personalized feed of IEEE Spectrum content
  • Save Spectrum articles to read later
  • Network with other technology professionals
  • Establish a professional profile
  • Create a group to share and collaborate on projects
  • Discover IEEE events and activities
  • Join and participate in discussions

Why Functional Programming Should Be the Future of Software Development

It’s hard to learn, but your code will produce fewer nasty surprises

11 min read
A plate of spaghetti made from code
Shira Inbar

You’d expectthe longest and most costly phase in the lifecycle of a software product to be the initial development of the system, when all those great features are first imagined and then created. In fact, the hardest part comes later, during the maintenance phase. That’s when programmers pay the price for the shortcuts they took during development.

So why did they take shortcuts? Maybe they didn’t realize that they were cutting any corners. Only when their code was deployed and exercised by a lot of users did its hidden flaws come to light. And maybe the developers were rushed. Time-to-market pressures would almost guarantee that their software will contain more bugs than it would otherwise.

Keep Reading ↓Show less