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Electrical Impedance Tool Wins $1 Million ALS Prize

The tool provides quantitative measurement of muscle deterioration

2 min read
Electrical Impedance Tool Wins $1 Million ALS Prize

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, or ALS, is a devastating disease. It progressively shuts down patients' nervous systems until they can no longer speak or move. There is no cure, and most patients die within three to five years after diagnosis.

Five years ago, the nonprofit group Prize4Life offered $1 million to the first researcher who could develop an inexpensive method for quantifying ALS symptoms. While not a cure, such a tool would make clinical trials of potential ALS treatments much easier. Last week, the organization announced that it would be awarding the $1 million prize to Seward Rutkove, a neurologist at the Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center in Massachusetts, for his handheld device that assesses neuromuscular deterioration with a method called electrical impedance myography.

As Rutkove points out in a recent review paper, researchers have been using electricity to study nerves and muscles for more than a century. But most studies focused on the nervous system's ability to generate electricity. Impedance analysis--inferring tissue's structural properties based on how electrical current flows through it--was, by and large, relegated to the food and nutrition industries. Rutkove got into the field in 1999 after reading a paper by two physicists who used electrical impedance to study human skeletal muscles. Perhaps the approach could help quantify the damage caused by neuromuscular diseases, such as ALS, he thought.

Within a few years, Rutkove was collaborating with those physicists and had partnered with Joel Dawson, an electrical engineer at MIT, to create a handheld electrical impedance system for clinical use. The method turned out to be a great way to chronicle neuromuscular deterioration: decreases in fat and muscle mass have different effects on resistance and capacitance, creating a disease state-specific electrical signature.

"It's not like it's the fanciest technology," Rutkove told the New York Times, "but I truly believe it will help people." A clinical trial of a stem cell treatment for ALS is already using electrical impedance as an outcome measure, and more are sure to follow now that the technology has won the Prize4Life contest.

Image: The current version of Rutkove's electrical impedance myography system.
Image Credit: Convergence Medical Devices

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Are You Ready for Workplace Brain Scanning?

Extracting and using brain data will make workers happier and more productive, backers say

11 min read
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A photo collage showing a man wearing a eeg headset while looking at a computer screen.
Nadia Radic
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Get ready: Neurotechnology is coming to the workplace. Neural sensors are now reliable and affordable enough to support commercial pilot projects that extract productivity-enhancing data from workers’ brains. These projects aren’t confined to specialized workplaces; they’re also happening in offices, factories, farms, and airports. The companies and people behind these neurotech devices are certain that they will improve our lives. But there are serious questions about whether work should be organized around certain functions of the brain, rather than the person as a whole.

To be clear, the kind of neurotech that’s currently available is nowhere close to reading minds. Sensors detect electrical activity across different areas of the brain, and the patterns in that activity can be broadly correlated with different feelings or physiological responses, such as stress, focus, or a reaction to external stimuli. These data can be exploited to make workers more efficient—and, proponents of the technology say, to make them happier. Two of the most interesting innovators in this field are the Israel-based startup InnerEye, which aims to give workers superhuman abilities, and Emotiv, a Silicon Valley neurotech company that’s bringing a brain-tracking wearable to office workers, including those working remotely.

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