Drones and Sensors Could Spot Fires Before They Go Wild

Simulations suggest that the approach can achieve early wildfire detection with 99 percent accuracy

3 min read
A drone photo shows the wildfire in Menderes district of Izmir, Turkey on August 01, 2020.
Mehmet Emin Menguarslan/Anadolu Agency/Getty Images

The speed at which a wildfire can rip through an area and wreak havoc is nothing short of awe-inspiring and terrifying. Early detection of these events is critical for fire management efforts, whether that involves calling in firefighters or evacuating nearby communities.

Currently, early fire detection in remote areas is typically done by satellite—but this approach can be hindered by cloud cover. What’s more, even the most advanced satellite systems detect fires once the burning area reaches an average seize of 18.4 km2 (7.1 square miles). 

To detect wildfires earlier on, some researchers are proposing a novel solution that harnesses a network of Internet of Things (IoT) sensors and a fleet of drones, or unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs). The researchers tested their approach through simulations, described in a study published May 5 in IEEE Internet of Things Journal, finding that it can detect fires that are just 2.5 km2 (just under one square mile) in size with near perfect accuracy.

Their idea is timely, as climate change is driving an increase in wildfires around many regions of the world, as seen recently in California and Australia.

“In the last few years, the number, frequency, and severity of wildfires have increased dramatically worldwide, significantly impacting countries’ economies, ecosystems, and communities. Wildfire management presents a significant challenge in which early fire detection is key,” emphasizes Osama Bushnaq, a senior researcher at the Autonomous Robotics Research Center of the Technology Innovation Institute in Abu Dhabi, who was involved in the study.

The approach that Bushnaq and his colleagues are proposing involves a network of IoT sensors scattered throughout regions of concern, such as a national park or forests situated near communities. If a fire ignites, IoT devices deployed in the area will detect it and wait until a patrolling UAV is within transmission range to report their measurements. If a UAV receives multiple positive detections by the IoT devices, it will notify the nearby firefighting department that a wildfire has been verified.

The researchers evaluated a number of different UAVs and IoT sensors based on cost and features to determine the optimal combinations. Next, they tested their UAV-IoT approach through simulations, whereby 420 IoT sensors were deployed per square kilometer of simulated forest and 18 UAVs patrolled the forest of area 400 square kilometers. The system could detect fires covering 2.5 km2 with greater than 99 percent accuracy. For smaller fires covering 0.5 km2 the approach yielded 69 percent accuracy.

These results suggest that, if an optimal number of UAVs and IoT devices are present, wildfires can be detected in much shorter time than with the satellite imaging. But Bushnaq acknowledges that this approach has its limitations. “UAV-IoT networks can only cover relatively smaller areas,” he explains. “Therefore, the UAV-IoT network would be particularly suitable for wildfire detection at high-risk regions.”

For these reasons, the researchers are proposing that UAV-IoT approach be used alongside satellite imaging, which can cover vast areas but with less wildfire detection speed and reliability.

Moving forward, the team plans to explore ways of further improving upon this approach, for example by optimizing the trajectory of the UAVs or addressing issues related to the battery life of UAVs.

Bushnaq envisions such UAV-IoT systems having much broader applications, too. “Although the system is designed for wildfire detection, it can be used for monitoring different forest parameters, such as wind speed, moisture content, or temperature estimation,” he says, noting that such a system could also be extended beyond the forest setting, for example by monitoring oil spills in bodies of water.

This article appears in the July 2021 print issue as “Unmanned Aerial Firespotters.”

The Conversation (2)
John Chun07 Feb, 2022

I already came up with this idea in 2016, the US government stopped me because they said I was building a bomb device.

William Stiles12 Oct, 2021

Long ago I was a forest service lookout and a good lookout could spot a fire when it occupied less that a few square yards--especially at night when most lightening fires occur. It seems to me that the battle has largely been lost when the fire occupies .5 KM squared ( over 100 acres!)

Lookouts acquire this skill by using pattern recognition. They study how the forest looks when there is no fire. For example, they know where smoke normally occurs and where lights are located. If the light is moving it is obviously not a forest fire! If the smoke is black instead of blue it is not a forest fire. Consequently at a glance a lookout can recognize any change from normal that may be the beginning of a forest fire.

Consequently, if you want to detect potential fires when the fire is under an acre, I suggest you need to employ pattern recognition technology. This could be accomplished by placing remotely controlled high resolution cameras where the lookouts use to be and operate them with a solar powered battery system. Use these cameras to record a large number of normal views and then use pattern recognition software to flag an abnormal view. Current views need to be updated every few minutes. Human intervention could then be used to evaluate an abnormal view and very quickly decide if it is a potential forest fire. As in the past, triangulation could be used to to pinpoint the fire's location and if necessary a drone could be dispatched for further verification.

Europe Expands Virtual Borders To Thwart Migrants

Our investigation reveals that Europe is turning to remote sensing to detect seafaring migrants so African countries can pull them back

14 min read
A photo of a number of people sitting in a inflatable boat on the water with a patrol ship in the background.

Migrants in a dinghy accompanied by a Frontex vessel at the village of Skala Sikaminias, on the Greek island of Lesbos, after crossing the Aegean sea from Turkey, on 28 February 2020.


It was after midnight in the Maltese search-and-rescue zone of the Mediterranean when a rubber boat originating from Libya carrying dozens of migrants encountered a hulking cargo ship from Madeira and a European military aircraft. The ship’s captain stopped the engines, and the aircraft flashed its lights at the rubber boat. But neither the ship nor the aircraft came to the rescue. Instead, Maltese authorities told the ship’s captain to wait for vessels from Malta to pick up the migrants. By the time those boats arrived, three migrants had drowned trying to swim to the idle ship.

The private, Malta-based vessels picked up the survivors, steamed about 237 kilometers south, and handed over the migrants to authorities in Libya, which was and is in the midst of a civil war, rather than return to Malta, 160 km away. Five more migrants died on the southward journey. By delivering the migrants there, the masters of the Maltese vessels, and perhaps the European rescue authorities involved, may have violated the international law of the sea, which requires ship masters to return people they rescue to a safe port. Instead, migrants returned to Libya over the last decade have reported enslavement, physical abuse, extortion, and murders while they try to cross the Mediterranean.

If it were legal to deliver rescued migrants to Libya, it would be as cheap as sending rescue boats a few extra kilometers south instead of east. But over the last few years, Europe’s maritime military patrols have conducted fewer and fewer sea rescue operations, while adding crewed and uncrewed aerial patrols and investing in remote-sensing technology to create expanded virtual borders to stop migrants before they get near a physical border.

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