But just how much damage can cybercrime cause? About US $67 billion to U.S. companies last year, according to an estimate based on the Federal Bureau of Investigation's 2005 Computer Crime Survey, released in January. The FBI questioned 2000 public and private organizations in four states and extrapolated some of the results to the rest of the country. It found that viruses and spyware were the most common problems reported [see table], while the effects of viruses and worms were the most costly. The attacks came from 36 different countries, with half of all the attacks originating in the United States or China.

A small fraction of the organizations reported the incidents to law enforcement officials. Most of the others were either unaware that the attacks were illegal or believed that law enforcement would not help them--and might even harm them.

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Why Functional Programming Should Be the Future of Software Development

It’s hard to learn, but your code will produce fewer nasty surprises

11 min read
A plate of spaghetti made from code
Shira Inbar

You’d expectthe longest and most costly phase in the lifecycle of a software product to be the initial development of the system, when all those great features are first imagined and then created. In fact, the hardest part comes later, during the maintenance phase. That’s when programmers pay the price for the shortcuts they took during development.

So why did they take shortcuts? Maybe they didn’t realize that they were cutting any corners. Only when their code was deployed and exercised by a lot of users did its hidden flaws come to light. And maybe the developers were rushed. Time-to-market pressures would almost guarantee that their software will contain more bugs than it would otherwise.

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