China’s Water Scarcity Aggravated by Shrinking Wetlands

Nearly 9 percent of wetlands were lost in the last decade

2 min read
China’s Water Scarcity Aggravated by Shrinking Wetlands

China’s wetlands have shrunk by nearly 9 percent in recent years, and the loss could continue if the government doesn't intervene. Officials from China's State Forestry Administration (SFA) told reporters on Monday that 340 000 square kilometers of wetlands, an area the size of the Netherlands, has disappeared since 2003.

The loss of wetlands is not only a blow to the flora and fauna that thrive in the critical habitat, but also to the Chinese population, which already faces increasing competition between agriculture, energy and development.

According to a report in Reuters, the officials said the loss was due to a combination of agricultural needs, large infrastructure projects, and climate change,  In particular, Zhang Yongli, vice director of the SFA, told reporters on Monday that the wetland loss due to infrastructure projects has increased tenfold in the past decade.

Northern China has the most acute water shortages. Nearly half of China’s population lives in the north, but it has only 14 percent of the water. Across the entire country, 85 percent of water is used by agriculture and industry, according to the nonprofit China Water Risk.

About 70 percent the nation's electric power comes from coal-fired generators that require massive amounts of water to operate. And the needs of the energy industry are only expected to increase. World Resources Institute (WRI) reported that China has plans for 363 new coal-fired power plants that will all require water for thermal cooling. Although new coal plants require less water than older plants, they still require more water than natural gas combined cycle plants, solar PV, or wind power. About half of the proposed plants are in areas of high or extremely high water stress, according to WRI.

The story of China’s shrinking wetlands has been ongoing. A 2012 study [PDF] found that China lost 23 percent of its freshwater marshes and 51 percent of its coastal wetlands over the previous 60 years.

One of the issues is adequate enforcement of safeguards for the wetlands. According to Reuters, 9 billion yuan ($1.5 billion) was earmarked for wetland protection between 2005 and 2010, but only 38 percent of those funds were actually allocated. For the period beginning in 2011 and ending in 2015, that figure has risen to 12.9 billion yuan.

China is not without water; it has the world’s fifth largest store of freshwater, according to the Brookings Institution. However, that is not a lot when split amongst more than a billion people—especially taking into consideration that much of the water is in the sparsely populated southwest, rather than the bustling north.

To meet the rising demand, says the Brookings Institution, the Government has plans for a water transfer project from the south to the north—despite various technical and humanitarian challenges. In 2010, the government also drew three red lines to establish “clear and binding limits” on water usage and to increase agricultural efficiency by 60 percent in specific regions. But for wetlands, the Forestry Administration's Zhang told reporters, China still lacks a strong national policy.

"Current regulations and rules have some clauses on wetland protection, but most are in fragments and disorganized, far from meeting the need of our work,” Zhang told ECNS. “Provisions for investigation and supervision of land use, the punishment for lawbreakers and better performance of International conventions are still nearly blank. Thus, a set of practical and binding regulations, especially for wetland protection, is badly needed."

Photo: Sean Gallagher/Getty Images

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Smokey the AI

Smart image analysis algorithms, fed by cameras carried by drones and ground vehicles, can help power companies prevent forest fires

7 min read
Smokey the AI

The 2021 Dixie Fire in northern California is suspected of being caused by Pacific Gas & Electric's equipment. The fire is the second-largest in California history.

Robyn Beck/AFP/Getty Images

The 2020 fire season in the United States was the worst in at least 70 years, with some 4 million hectares burned on the west coast alone. These West Coast fires killed at least 37 people, destroyed hundreds of structures, caused nearly US $20 billion in damage, and filled the air with smoke that threatened the health of millions of people. And this was on top of a 2018 fire season that burned more than 700,000 hectares of land in California, and a 2019-to-2020 wildfire season in Australia that torched nearly 18 million hectares.

While some of these fires started from human carelessness—or arson—far too many were sparked and spread by the electrical power infrastructure and power lines. The California Department of Forestry and Fire Protection (Cal Fire) calculates that nearly 100,000 burned hectares of those 2018 California fires were the fault of the electric power infrastructure, including the devastating Camp Fire, which wiped out most of the town of Paradise. And in July of this year, Pacific Gas & Electric indicated that blown fuses on one of its utility poles may have sparked the Dixie Fire, which burned nearly 400,000 hectares.

Until these recent disasters, most people, even those living in vulnerable areas, didn't give much thought to the fire risk from the electrical infrastructure. Power companies trim trees and inspect lines on a regular—if not particularly frequent—basis.

However, the frequency of these inspections has changed little over the years, even though climate change is causing drier and hotter weather conditions that lead up to more intense wildfires. In addition, many key electrical components are beyond their shelf lives, including insulators, transformers, arrestors, and splices that are more than 40 years old. Many transmission towers, most built for a 40-year lifespan, are entering their final decade.

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