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Fracking Report

A major investigative report published by The New York Times this last Sunday, February 27, identified important environmental hazards in natural gas fracking that previously have received little or no attention. Easily the most eye-catching is the disclosure that waste water from natural gas drilling wells sometimes contains levels of radioactivity that far exceed Federal drinking water standards. But that is not the only significant concern to be aired.

"With hydrofracking, a well can produce over a million gallons of waste-water that is often laced with highly corrosive salts, carcinogens like benzene and radioactive elements like radium, all of which can occur naturally thousands of feet underground," said the 4,000-word Times report, by Ian Urbina. Thousands of documents obtained by the Times "reveal that the waste-water, which is sometimes hauled to sewage plants not designed to treat it and then discharged into rivers that supply drinking water, contains radioactivity at levels higher than previously known."

An additional major finding, largely overlooked in previous journalistic investigations of fracking (including one by me), is that in Pennsylvania--the main locus of Marcellus Shale gas fracking--regulation of waste-water from fracking wells is singularly lax. Unlike some other states, Pennsylvania does not require waste-water to be put into storage caverns deep under impermeable rock, and alone among the drilling states, it allows drillers to discharge the water directly through sewage treatment plants.

Pennsylvania currently has about 71,000 active gas drilling wells, almost double the number ten years ago. The Times found that 128 wells generated waste water with levels of gross alpha--radiation from radium, uranium, and other radioactive materials--that exceeded Federal drinking water standards, in some cases by a factor of 2,700.

The potential environmental problems do not end with water. Air pollution also is a serious concern, as other reports have found. Sparsely populated Wyoming, for example, failed to meet Federal clean air standards for the first time in 2009, partly because of benzene and toluene fumes from some 27,000 wells. In six Texas counties where fracking is especially intense, early childhood asthma rates exceeded the state average by a factor of more than three.

"We're burning the furniture to heat the house," a former Pennsylvania secretary of conservation and natural resources told The New York Times. "In shifting away from coal and toward natural gas . . . it's not clear we have a plan for properly handling this waste."

The Times report is bound to have an impact especially in New York State, where a de-facto moratorium has been imposed on drilling in the New York City watershed, because of concerns about the city's water supply.


A second installment of Urbina's article appears today, March 2, and discusses efforts by frackers to address the waste-water issue by recycling. The general message is that this approach has considerable promise but is not as widely used at present as the industry has been claiming. In Pennsylvania, where it's been asserted that as much as 90 percent of waste water is recycled, the actual number is closer to 50 percent.

It's a telling detail in Urbina's report that the one company and industry representative who agreed to talk with him, Matt Pitzarella of Range Resources, is the very same person who made himself available to Spectrum this time last year, when I did a similar investigative report. The industry as a whole has been very close-lipped, and that is going to have to change drastically if it's going to retain public confidence as drilling becomes much more widespread.

Right now, reports Urbina, there are 6,400 permitted wells in Pennsylvania. In the next 20 years there are expected to be at least 50,000 more.

More Offshore Ideas: Floating Solar Panels

Everything is moving offshore these days. There's the massive potential of wind, then some ideas to float the turbines, and various ways to use tidal and wave power to produce energy... and now there's solar power.

A partnership between a French and an Israeli group aims to use industrial water basins and reservoirs as a platform for solar photovoltaic installations. Okay, so this isn't quite "offshore" in the way, say,  Cape Wind is, but it still involves shedding land-based requirements, and makes use of a space that otherwise was going unused. And the developers say that because these aren't natural lakes or the open sea, there isn't likely to be any local environmental impact of the installations.

A test site will soon launch in Cadarache, in France, and will run for nine months before the technology might be brought to the open market. The technology will make use of a cooling system involving the water sitting underneath the panels; this will allow cheap silicon cells to be used.

There is some concern that covering the water's surface with solar panels, even in an industrial, non-natural setting, could endanger plant and animal life in the water below. According to the developers, though, the panels will allow oxygen to penetrate the water as usual. Still, part of the testing phase will involve checks on the environmental impacts.

With space and land use concerns a constant problem for solar developers, this type of idea could prove invaluable. Others are out there, as well: "floating" takes on a new meeting in this idea out of Israel, involving helium balloons coated with solar cells.

Capped Landfills Get Solar Treatment

Landfills are all the rage these days. Capturing methane emissions from large trash sites has long been considered a solid energy-saving idea, but now a new trend sees capped landfills contributing to renewable goals in yet another way: solar power.

One site in Canton, Massachusetts, along with Southern Sky Renewable Energy, will install 5.6 megawatts of solar photovoltaic panels over the top of a capped landfill. They say it will generate as much as $70 million in combined savings and revenue over the next 25 years. When complete, it will be the largest solar installation in New England.

Jeffrey Osuch, executive secretary of another town in New Jersey following a similar plan, told the AP why this is an appealing idea: 

"Capped landfills have turned out to be a prime location for solar panels since they tend to be raised, can't be built on and have to be clear of trees to protect the integrity of the lining."

More generally, there is a glut of ideas floating around based on how better to use waste, landfills, and the like. Last year we covered here how Spain could get a full seven percent of its power from waste materials, and that British Airways will soon start to make use of a waste-to-fuel plant. And if none of those work, you can always turn your Staten Island landfill into a giant park.

(Image via Southern Sky Renewable Energy)

Renewable Car: Wind-Powered Vehicle Crosses Australia

It may not be the most practical of designs, but a German duo recently succeeded in crossing much of Australia in a wind-powered car. They set records for longest distance traveled in such a vehicle, as well as a 36-hour distance record and others.

Dirk Gion and Stefan Simmerer both developed and piloted the Wind Explorer, which traveled from Albany to Sydney in 18 days. The car, which weighs only 200 kilograms, has small lithium-ion batteries that are charged overnight by a turbine erected on a bamboo tower. It also can be pulled along by a kite, when the wind blows in the right direction.

To be clear, the trip was not completely powered by wind: they did need to recharge the batteries directly from the power grid very briefly, meaning that they traveled across Australia for about $15 in fuel costs. When charged, the 8 kWh battery pack could bring the car about 400 kilometers before needing to be recharged.

This isn't the first attempt at a wind-powered car, of course. Others have used a more direct approach (though the kite aspect of this new vehicle is quite direct), with sails or other devices. One car even managed to use a turbine to move it faster downwind than the speed of the wind itself.

Wind power isn't likely to be a primary feature of new generations of clean-running cars, but it shows that there is no shortage of new places to look for new transportation ideas.

Looming U.S. Battle on Fast Trains

In the U.S. budget proposal for the next fiscal year unveiled this week, the Obama administration is seeking $53 billion to promote development of fast train lines like those in Europe and Japan.

"At least two projects—a proposed Tampa-to-Orlando route in Florida and a planned San Francisco-to-Los Angeles route—would allow trains to reach upward of 200 miles per hour, rivaling trains in Europe and Asia," as The Wall Street Journal noted in a report.

Besides generating jobs and pushing the United States to catch up with rivals in a key area of infrastructural technology, greater use of trains has the potential to reduce gasoline consumption, boost energy independence, and cut carbon emissions--all fundamental administration goals.

Republicans in the House of Representatives, where U.S. spending bills have to originate under the Constitution, have made the trains spending proposal a tactical point of attack in efforts to rein in Federal spending, cut the deficit, and strike an alternative strategic approach to promoting economic growth.

As such, the looming battle over train funding is just the opening wedge in what will be a comprehensive attack on the administration's approach to energy and climate policy.

At the level of state government, where Republicans enormously strengthened their position in the November midterm elections, efforts are being made widely to roll back renewable energy portfolio requirements--mandates enacted by more than half the states in the country to have a certain fraction of electricity generated from renewable sources by certain dates.

Perhaps the most important fight will be over the Environmental Protection Agency's plans to regulate greenhouse gas emissions, as the Supreme Court authorized--indeed virtually required--several years ago. In somewhat startling testimony that EPA Administrator Lisa Jackson delivered to a congressional committee, she said that the agency's intentions are consistent with plans already initiated and formulated by former President George W. Bush's environmental chief.

Smart Grid Education

Mel Olken and his team at IEEE Power & Energy magazine have outdone themselves this month with an exceptional issue about collaboration between the state of Illinois and the Republic of Korea in smart grid technology. The opener is devoted to a far-sighted initiative by the Illinois Institute of Technology to meet future engineering needs.

With an initial grant of $5 million from the U.S. Department of Energy, the Chicago polytechnic has established the IIT Smart Grid Education and Workforce Training Center. The aim is to mobilize energy companies, labor unions, pre-college educators, community colleges, and universities to arouse interest among young people in the smart grid and recruit some of them for advanced training.

As the article spells out, the need is urgent. Each year U.S. colleges graduate about 800-1,000 engineering students who have expressed interest in electric power, and about 550 graduate students obtain advanced degrees in power engineering. Yet electric utilities are expected to need 7,000 newly minted engineers in the next five years, and total industrial and governmental demand could be twice that.

The problem begins, according to surveys cited in the article, in kindergarten. By the time most pupils get to high school, they know little about engineering and are not equipped mathematically  and scientifically to pursue advanced education in the field. So IIT, teaming up with Argonne National Laboratory and community colleges, is starting with preparation of units geared to pre-college students.

This is not all. The IIT initiative is evolving in the context of a broader collaboration between Illinois and South Korea described in a second article in Power & Energy. A third article describes a Korean national program "laying the foundation for a low-carbon green-growth economy by building a smart grid." A third article describes how Korea and Illinois are jointly exploring community sustainability initiatives, and a fourth discusses "smart renewable energy development" in Korea.

Willi Dansgaard in Memoriam

Willi Dansgaard, the great Danish paleoclimatologist, died on January 8. His passing has received remarkably little notice in the world press, though the New York Times published an appreciative obituary today. Were there a Nobel Prize in the earth sciences, he surely would have been a recipient. As it was he had to content himself with the Tyler Prize, the highest award given for environmental research, which he shared with Hans Oeschger, the Swiss glaciologist with whom his work was closely linked, and Claude Lorius, a French scientist.

It was Dansgaard who discovered that the temperature of the earth's atmosphere could be inferred from the isotopic composition of rainwater and snow, and who then realized that the past temperatures of the atmosphere could be extracted from ice cores. Oeschger made himself the world's foremost expert on the measurement of carbon dioxide and other gases found in ice cores. Their work led eventually to a complete year-by-year reconstruction of the earth's climate going back a million years, through a handful of ice ages, showing a powerful linear relationship between greenhouse gas levels and temperatures. Lorius led a team that produced an early version of that record, going back hundreds of thousands of years, based on drilling in Antarctica.

Dansgaard and Oeschger also discovered cycles in which drastic climate changes were found to occur much more rapidly than anybody had imagined--on the scale of decades, rather than hundreds or thousands of years. Though Dansgaard was a rather apolitical person, the discovery of abrupt climate change put it on the global agenda, leading to language in the Rio Framework Convention on Climate Change calling for measures to prevent "dangerous" climate change.

It's regrettable that we don't have a Nobel prize in the geosciences, and not merely for personal reasons. There's altogether too little appreciation of the fact that a revolution occurred in the earth sciences in the second half of the twentieth century, as science historian Spencer Weart has observed, and that the study of the biosphere remains one of the most dynamic of the physical sciences today. Yet earlier this week the Washington Post published an excellent article detailing how most of the major U.S. satellites dedicated to monitoring changes on the Earth's surface and in its atmosphere are behind schedule and under-funded. These include the Global Precipitation Measurement mission, the latest Landsat satellite, Hydros, and the NPOESS satellite set.

Nuclear Power in France Sinks - Literally

Offshore isn't just for wind turbines anymore. (Or tidal power, for that matter.) France already gets a large majority of its power from nuclear reactors, and the country clearly isn't shy about continuing to innovate in the field. The state naval company, DCNS, announced plans to develop and build nuclear reactors designed to sit on the sea floor and send power back to shore.

The reactors, called Flexblue, will range from 50 to 250 megawatts (compare to standard large, land-based reactors, on the order of 800 to 1200 MW). The next phase of development will involve a DCNS collaboration with nuclear companies Areva, EDF and others. Over two years, they hope to establish commercial viability as well as address safety and security concerns with the underwater concept, as well as simply ironing out the technical details.

The Flexblue reactors will come in the form of a 100 meter-long cylinder, with a diameter of about 15 meters. They will be moored to the sea floor at depths of between 60 and 100 meters, no more than a few kilometers from shore. The CEO of DCNS suggested that siting the reactors underwater will reduce risks of proliferation and make them less vulnerable to terrorist attacks.

This idea takes the growing trend toward small modular reactors (SMRs) and adds a twist that probably does increase security, but clearly adds some technical complexity as well. It will be interesting to see if the initial studies can be completed and a prototype installed by 2016, as the company hopes.

(Image via DCNS)

China's Climate Cred

It's safe to say that China is the number one U.S. obsession, and that trade competitiveness is the top-ranking sub-obsession. Under competitiveness, China's climate policies may be the leading sub-sub-obsession. I personally have had my share of experience with the topic's touchiness. I can scarcely broach it with my best friend, a professional economist, because he thinks we should impose punitive tariffs on China unless it agrees to cut its carbon emissions and I don't. (I see trade sanctions as too violent a gesture; and if we impose them on China because the People's Republic benefits from any costly measures we impose on ourselves, what's to prevent Europe from imposing the same kind of penalties on us because they have adopted much costlier carbon cuts than we have?) Once, at a neighbor's cocktail party, when I suggested to a Harvard professor that it was fair to require carbon cuts of the advanced industrial countries before fast-developing countries like China had to adopt similar measures, his reaction was to turn his back on me and walk off.

So a lot of people would accuse me of being soft on China. But I see, surveying some recent comment, that I'm a long ways from being as soft as it gets.

This week, James Hansen of NASA's Goddard Institute of Space Studies at Columbia University stands accused in the arch-conservative Washington Times of comparing U.S. climate policy invidiously with China's. "I have the impression that Chinese leadership takes a long view, perhaps because of the long history of their culture, in contrast to the West with its short election cycles," Hansen is reported to have said.. "At the same time, China has the capacity to implement policy decisions rapidly. The leaders seem to seek the best technical information and do not brand as a hoax that which is inconvenient."

Sorry, but if you're trying to persuade Americans to adopt stronger carbon reduction policies, it's plainly not constructive to suggest or seem to suggest that we'd do better to adopt China's political system. Yet Hansen's not alone in giving China much more credit than it deserves.

Robert Rebetto, an economist with the United Nations Foundation, said in a recent letter to the New York Times that "China has already taken more forceful actions to limit emissions than we have"--stricter fuel efficiency standards, a national renewable energy portfolio standard, big investments in wind and solar, etc. But Rebetto seems to be losing sight of one simple thing: The United States has promised to cut its emissions, while China won't even say when its emissions growth will peak.

The list goes on. In the December issue of Scientific American, David G. Victor asserts that China is making the world's "biggest effort to check growth in its pollution." (That may be true in the literal sense that China is trying harder to cut its pollution than any other country is trying to cut China's pollution, but it's not true in any other sense.) Victor, director of the Laboratory on International Law and Regulation at the University of California, San Diego, refers to China's investments in nuclear power and supercritical coal combusion, and to its concerted drive to improve energy efficiency. ("Across the Chinese economy, efficiency has become a watchword. It even factors in to how the Chinese Communist Party promotes its officials.") Victor seems to be losing sight of the fact that each year China continues to add coal generation roughly equivalent to the whole size of Britain's electricity generation sector, and that its automotive sector is growing even more crazily. If China were really serious about cutting pollution and greenhouse gas emissions, it would be looking a lot harder for a way to bypass the internal combustion engine altogether.

(I'd give you the url for Victor's commentary, but it's not easy to locate on SciAm's website, perhaps not by accident.)

Why the sudden fashion for giving China much more credit for its climate policies than is its due? You've got me.

Tidal Power Coming to India?

A tidal power plant off the west coast of India could be among the first large-scale such facility in all of Asia. Atlantis Resources announced plans to install a 50 MW tidal plant consisting of 1 MW turbines in the Gulf of Kutch; construction could begin this year.

The Atlantis turbines, which also come in a 2 MW size, use a double turbine design to harness the flow of the tide. The planned Indian facility would be among the first in Asia, but tidal power -- along with wave power and related projects -- is clearly trending upward around the world. There are large proposed projects in South Korea, and Atlantis alone has other projects in Australia and Scotland.

In the US, pilot projects are underway in the northwest and elsewhere, and there is  interest in installing hydrokinetic turbines in the Mississippi River. Even New York City gets a tiny portion of power from tidal resources, with turbines under the East River providing small amounts of power to Roosevelt Island.

The potential of tidal power, like so many other renewable resources, is impressive. Some estimates place US potential at 15 percent of its total electricity needs. A report on global potential suggested about 90 gigawatts of tidal power are readily accessible, with far more in pure potential. And there is no reason some of this potential won't be realized; even the new Indian plant might not stop at 50 MW, eventually scaling up to 200 MW.

(Image via Atlantis Resources)


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