The Bionic Body Shop

Advanced medical devices are the tools that enable humans and robots to merge, perhaps signaling the dawn of a technological singularity. How close are we now? Take a tour and shop around -- we've been cramming more intricate engineering into our bodies than you might think.

This is part of IEEE Spectrum's SPECIAL REPORT: THE SINGULARITY

Animation: Bryan Christie Design

For more articles, videos, and special features, go to The Singularity Special Report.

Note: Costs are estimates and can vary widely from patient to patient; images are representative and may differ from actual devices.

Sources: Cyberdyne; Cyberkinetics Neurotechnology Systems; Cyberonics; Deka Research & Development Corp.; Digital Angel; Given Imaging; Let Them Hear Foundation; Mark Kroll; Medtronic; National Pain Foundation; Otologics; Otto Bock; Ossur; Paul Holtzheimer; Second Sight Medical Products; Scott Shikora; Synapse Biomedical; Thoratec; Touch Bionics.