The High-k Solution

Illustration: Bryan Christie Design


PROBLEM SOLVED: Transistors of the 65-nm ­generation were plagued by electrons that tunneled through the gate insulation. Switching to a high-k dielectric as a gate oxide solved that problem but introduced others. Those problems were solved by the introduction of a new deposition technique and swapping the silicon gate material for two types of metal gates, allowing for the introduction of 45-nm microprocessors.

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