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Expedition Brings High Speed Connectivity to the Ocean Floor

Members of the U.S. National Science Foundation's Ocean Observatory Initiative (OOI) are approaching the end of an nearly three month-long cruise during which they installed a fiberoptic cables and power lines that form the backbone of a seafloor observatory in the Pacific Ocean. The observatory will make it possible for oceanographers and other researchers to gather data about the ocean floor in real time from a network of seismometers, cameras, and other sensors hundreds of kilometers off-shore and as deep as 1800 meters beneath the ocean's surface. 

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FAA: Airlines Must Replace Boeing Cockpit Screens to Avoid Wi-Fi Interference

U.S. regulators aren't taking any chances with the discovery that Wi-Fi signals can cause flickering or temporary blank screens in the cockpits of Boeing passenger jets. On Tuesday, the FAA ordered airlines to replace the cockpit displays used by pilots in more than 1,300 Boeing aircraft over the next five years.

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Bright, Bendy Gallium Nitride LEDs

When it comes to light-emitting diodes, both inorganic and organic devices have found their niches. Inorganic LEDs, which beat organic ones hands down in brightness, energy efficiency, and durability, reign in lighting. Organic LEDs, on the other hand, can be tiny and are cheap to manufacture, so they take the prize for large-area, high-resolution and flexible applications such as displays and wearable sensors.

Researchers have now combined the best of inorganic and organic LEDs. They've made bendable inorganic LEDs by growing micrometers-tall gallium nitride rods on graphene. The tiny 50µm x 50µm LEDs glow bright blue and retain their brightness after being bent more than 1000 times. They could lead to inexpensive, high-quality displays and sensors, and could be used in touch panels and smart contact lenses, says Gyu-Chul Yi, a professor of physics at Seoul National University. Yi and his colleagues reported the LEDs in the online journal APL Materials.

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Mantis Shrimp Eyes Inspire Cameras to See Cancer

Millions of years of evolution have given the Mantis shrimp compound eyes to spot delicious meals that it can either spear or club to death in its underwater environment. More recently, the natural design of those eyes has inspired a new camera sensor that could spot cancer cells inside patients' bodies.

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Browser Beware: Wi-Fi Users Sign Over First-Born Children

The results of a social experiment in London suggest that on-the-go Internet users are not being as careful as they should be when connecting to unfamiliar networks. In order to connect to a rigged Wi-Fi network set up by mobile security firm F-Secure, six users agreed to sign over their first born children to the company.

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New Neurological Map Could Be Key To Psychiatric Brain Stimulation Treatments

Treating mental illness doesn't always refer to talk and prescriptions. Psychiatrists nowadays are increasingly embracing innovative technologies that alter neural circuits electrically instead of chemically. Still, the growing field of "brain stimulation" treatment has been consistently stunted by one big uncertain question: what regions of the brain should you target to best help the patient?

New research from Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center (BIDMC) in Boston could finally provide some clarity. The findings, reported in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (PNAS) paint a map of “functionally-connected” sites in the brain that better illustrate which brain networks are affected by different diseases—and how psychiatrists can best go about treating them through brain stimulation. They may one day reveal sites in the brain where noninvasive forms of stimulation—like transcranial magnetic stimulation—could be administered in lieu of invasive ones—like deep brain stimulation implants—and still be just as effective.

“Although different types of brain stimulation are currently applied in different locations, we found that the targets used to treat the same disease are nodes in the same connected brain network,” says BIDMC's Michael Fox, one of the study’s researchers. He hopes the results will help psychiatrists make more informed decisions when evaluating treatment options.

The most widely used brain stimulation—deep brain stimulation (DBS)—requires an electrode to be implanted deep within the brain. Neurons in the area are stimulated at at least 100 Hz. In the last decade, DBS has been a successful treatment option for patients with Parkinson’s, dystonia, and essential tremor.

Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) on the other hand, is a noninvasive approach that uses a powerful electromagnet placed on the scalp to stimulate brain cells up to several centimeters below the surface. It provides less frequent and less powerful stimulation, and does not carry the same risks that invasive surgery does. However, the FDA currently approves rTMS for the treatment of depression only.

With some exceptions (such as treating Parkinson's with DBS), there is a lack of information about which specific brain regions should be targeted when treating diseases with brain stimulation; this is especially true for noninvasive interventions like rTMS. When using rTMS to treat depression, there is little agreement on which regions to stimulate to alleviate symptoms. “We don’t know exactly where to go,” says Fox. “This might help to verify where best to stimulate for patients.”

For the study, Fox and his research team looked at brain stimulation treatment data for 14 conditions, including addiction, Alzheimer’s, depression, dystonia, epilepsy, essential tremor, Huntington’s, and Parkinson’s. They listed the stimulation sites, deep in the brain and near the surface, thought to be effective for the treatment of each disease. Fox and his team wanted to determine if some of these sites were actually connected to one-another as part of the same brain networks—and if so, where they were located.

Through a data set of functional MRI images of people’s brains at rest, the research team found fluctuations in spontaneous brain activity that correlated with one-another, illustrating which sites were functionally connected. The researchers drew a map of connections from deep brain stimulation sites to the surface of the brain. When they compared this map to sites on the brain surface that work for noninvasive brain stimulation, the two matched up.

“It’s a beautifully synthetic study,” says George Mark, a pioneer of the use of rTMS in psychiatry at the Medical University of South Carolina who was not involved with the study. “We’ve always wondered how much we really know about any of these brain stimulation treatments. The study looks at invasive and noninvasive techniques like a jigsaw puzzle, and finds out where they match up.”

Sarah Lisanby, chair of psychiatry at Duke University Medical School and a brain stimulation researcher, called the approach “significant”, but expressed concerns about the level of efficacy the evidence pointed to. Besides fMRI, she thinks other measurements of neurological fluctuations may be important to take a look at.

Fox acknowledged the findings do not actually verify the map of connections they’ve drawn up: “It’s a retrospective review of the data we have thus far.” But he’s eager to follow up on this study soon with real data. “We actually want to test it and see if we’re right!”

Fox and others are hopeful the findings can be used to help psychiatrists determine when invasive or noninvasive techniques are more appropriate, and how they can be administered most effectively. Mark believes the study—and the marriage of technology and neuroscience in general—is “part of a larger goal to be able to permanently modify brain circuits” in a way that will completely cure many psychiatric diseases. “Until we figure out how to permanently affect brain, it’s unlikely either of these techniques will replace one-another."

Printed, Flexible, and Organic Wearable Sensors Worth $244 Million in 10 Years

Wearable sensors capable of checking someone's heart rate or breathing may not rely on traditional microchip technology in the near future. Instead, the next generation of printed, flexible, and organic electronic sensors could enable new medical and athletic wearable devices in a market worth an estimated $244 million within a decade, according to market analysis firm Lux Research.

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The Story Behind the Story Behind “The Great Lightbulb Conspiracy”

In Thomas Pynchon’s cult classic Gravity’s Rainbow, an immortal lightbulb named Byron runs afoul of a secretive international industrial alliance known as the Phoebus cartel. When the cartel detects that Byron has exceeded his programmed life span, the Committee on Incandescent Anomalies dispatches a hit man to take Byron out.

Markus Krajewski, like many readers, found the story both “wild and weird.” And yet, he says, “I knew that Pynchon’s prose style mixes fact and fiction, and so I wondered: Could this be true?”

Turns out, many parts of Pynchon’s tale were indeed based on fact: There really was a Phoebus cartel, and it really did target lightbulbs. Krajewski learned that Pynchon had relied on bona fide economic histories in weaving his tale of the cartel, including George W. Stocking and Myron W. Watkins’s 1946 text, Cartels in Action: Case Studies in International Business Diplomacy. Digging deeper, he discovered that the Municipal Archives in Berlin housed corporate records from Osram, a key cartel member. At the time, in the late 1990s, he was studying in Berlin at Humboldt University, so he decided to “order up some files.” In this rich trove were letters and reports that documented how the cartel conspired to engineer a shorter-lived incandescent lightbulb. His article, “The Great Lightbulb Conspiracy,” appears in the latest issue of IEEE Spectrum.

Christian Werner
Corporate memos and reports at the Berlin archives describe the inner workings of the Phoebus cartel.

Now a professor of media studies at the University of Basel, in Switzerland, Krajewski [he’s shown above at the Berlin archives] says at first he was “quite astonished that the cartel so meticulously tried to control everything connected to such an ordinary object like the lightbulb.” But when he considered the huge profits involved, it all made sense.

Still, he says, by reducing the lightbulb’s life span, the cartel was essentially working against progress. “William Meinhardt, the head of Osram, always argued that the cartel was for the benefit of the consumer,” Krajewski says. And that, he concluded, was the biggest fiction of all.

FDA Approval For Mini NMR-Based Pathogen Detector

Startup T2 Biosystems in Lexington, Mass., got the U.S. Food and Drug Administration's (FDA’s) nod on Monday for a device that quickly and accurately detects dangerous pathogens. The instrument is based on miniaturized nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) technology developed by MIT and Harvard Medical School researchers who founded the company eight years ago. The Harvard researchers are also developing the tool for cancer detection.

Today’s culture-based diagnostic tests for viral and bacterial infections are expensive, and require a few days wait, even with the equipment at full-scale laboratories. A speedy, portable, sensitive detector could save lives and money.

T2 Biosystem’s fully automated bench-top tool delivers results in three to five hours and is more sensitive than culture-based tests, according to the company. It works like this: A clinician loads a patient’s blood sample into a disposable test cartridge containing a few reagents, inserts the cartridge into the machine, and waits. The machine is capable of detecting a range of biological material including proteins, DNA, small molecules, viruses, and bacteria.

In conventional NMR machines, atoms aligned in a magnetic field are vibrated using a radio-frequency signal in order to measure their oscillation frequency. Those machines require large, powerful magnets.

In T2 Bio’s miniature NMR device, the magnet can be smaller because the sample volume is tiny and because the system measures how quickly the atoms’ vibrations decay instead of their frequency. Specifically, the instrument probes water molecules in a sample. Magnetic nanoparticles coated with antibodies that bind to the target molecule are added to the sample. If the target molecule is present in the sample, the nanoparticles cluster around the target, changing the signal decay rate.

The FDA approved T2 Bio's diagnostic instrument and a test for Candida yeast that runs on the machine. The test can detect five Candida species that cause potentially fatal bloodstream infections. Clinical trials in over 1,500 people showed that the T2 system could detect Candida yeast with 91.1-percent accuracy, a major improvement over blood culture-based tests, which are 60 to 70 percent accurate.

A typical Candida-infected patient stays in the hospital for 40 days at a cost of over $130,000, states the company's website. Doctors usually put patients on antifungal drugs while waiting for blood culture results. Getting a result in a few hours would let doctors quickly deliver the most effective course of treatment. The company mentions a study that shows that providing the right antifungal therapy within 24 hours of symptom onset decreases the length of hospital stay by approximately ten days and decreases the average cost of care by approximately $30,000 per patient.

But the FDA doesn’t recommend replacing blood culture tests yet. Per the agency: “because false positive results are possible with the T2Candida, physicians should perform blood cultures to confirm T2Candida results.”

T2 Bio plans to charge between $150 and $250 for the test, according to this Xconomy article. The challenge the company now faces is to get hospitals to buy their machines and adopt its tests as part of their standard routine.


Google X Balloons Will Circle the Earth to Deliver Internet

A ring of balloons circling the Earth could begin delivering Internet service to mobile phone users in the Southern Hemisphere sometime in 2015. That's the vision of Google's Project Loon, an effort to get billions of people living off the grid in remote regions to join the rest of the world online.

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